A Study Of His Poetic Turns English Literature Essay free essay sample
Poetry has been defined otherwise depending on the focal point on which an person is biased to. For illustration, Malcolm notes that earlier efforts, like Aristotle ‘s poets concentrated their definition of poesy towards play, comedy, address in rhetoric and eventually in vocal. Kant points out that, subsequently efforts to specify poesy shifted focal point towards characters and characteristics like rime and verse signifier. In add-on, Thomas notes that, the ulterior definitions besides focused in underscoring the importance of characteristics that differentiate poesy from prose signifiers of composing. Their chief aim is to inform the readers about a certain capable such as essays, lifes, novels and pronunciamentos ( qtd. in Malcolm ) . However, at around the center of the twentieth century, there has been a loose definition of what poesy is basically as the usage of linguistic communication creatively to come up with a piece of work.
Compared to other plants of literature poesy is chiefly distinguished by its signifier or construction, most modern poets have moved off from the recognized signifiers and are composing in free poetry.
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A Study Of His Poetic Turns English Literature Essay
However, these alterations do non intend that poesy presents lack narrative or it is unlogical, it implies that poesy is an effort in doing the narrative idea procedure beautiful without the load of prosecuting the logical. John Keats, a Romantic poet in English described it as “ Negative Capability ” . In the “ romantic ” attack signifier is viewed as a cardinal component in successful poesy since it is more distinguishable and abstract in footings of the implicit in fanciful logic ( Christensen et al ) . This term paper seeks to prosecute a figure of Keats ‘ poesy and prose while revising them in the visible radiation of the bends utilizing the Jungian theoretical account of the mind in unearthing Keats ‘ reliable Self where he frequently concealed from his readers in his literary letters and verse forms. In peculiar, the alteration of John Keats ‘ work will be based on the bends in his verse form whereby he changes the subjects of the verse forms from the waies in which the verse form was originally headed to, as a consequence concealing from his readers in his letters and poems the existent and intended significance utilizing this technique in his poetic work. In add-on, the usage of poetic bends in the Sonnets that he wrote helps John Keats ‘ in concealing emotional feelings from his readers.
Born in Moorfield, in the 1790s John Keats schooled at the Reverend Mr. Clarke School at Enfield. However, John Keats was removed from school at an early and joined a sawbones Mr. Hammond as a trainee in Edmonton. Nevertheless, unsettled by the events that led to his remotion from school he carried with him and ever felt a deficit in the cognition and command Latin. This compelled him to interpret and compose a actual prose of the whole of Aeneid by Virgil. Furthermore, at the clip he was besides larning and analyzing linguistic communication on his ain going learned for his age on his ain. After the compulsory footings of old ages under Mr. Hammond, John Keats joined Guy ‘s Hospital to analyze natural history, anatomy and medical specialty. Though John Keats was born a natural poet it is of import to observe that he picked up poesy in his 18th twelvemonth, the surveies in medical specialty seemingly could non enable him to read literary work instead than the voluminous books on anatomy, medical specialty and history. However, his brush after reading Spencer ‘s “ Fairy Queen ” awakened the mind he had within him for poesy.
Furthermore, the faery land in Spencer ‘s work made him enlightened into a new universe in which ne’er existed before, he imitated the faery land led him to composing his first volume of verse forms in which one of the verse forms in it is ‘Imitation of Spenser ‘ , which has become a bewitching verse form for those who are interested in the history of John Keats. Basically, the brush he had with Spencer ‘s work marked the beginning of love for poesy, John Keats was attracted to the work of Shakespeare, Spencer and Chaucer and after two old ages he was able to discontinue the profession in medical specialty and take poesy on a full clip footing. In consequence the determination to to the full take poesy clearly led to composing of volumes of poesy work which is still relevant and learnt today.
John Keats is one of the most influential British poets the universe over. Keats died at the age of 20 five but his verse forms were a force to recon with. His influence nevertheless grew by springs and bounds after his decease. Poetry can be of a personal nature and surely Keats was of a personal nature. The verse form can portray the poet ‘s province of head, his feelings and what he or she perceives of something. Therefore by reading poesy we can delve into a poets mind and understand the events or influence that transcended before the authorship of the verse form. Such verse forms may be about peace, war and love among others. It is a narrative about the poet ‘s experiences. Keats poets are largely about love and the religious or Godhead. Poetry as a literary art contains concealed messages.
In order to construe and acquire a more graphic apprehension of John Keats poetry it is prudent to put accent on depth psychology and the construct of individualization. It is imperative to derive penetration on how the human mind plants.
Psychoanalysis is a school of idea that was developed by a physician known as Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis involves the survey of the human personality through the reading of dreams ( Dunne 14 ) . Freud outlined the part and relationship of the Idaho, self-importance, and ace self-importance in the construction of the human personality. The human mind is what determines our cause of actions or behaviour.
Merely as it ‘s the instance with many poets, John Keat ‘s loved the poetic bend excessively. He has employed bends strategically and attractively in his verse form. However, it ‘s of great important to admit Keat ‘s love of poetic bend. Negative capableness is something that Keat is celebrated for valuing really significantly in poesy. Keat ‘s theory of Negative Capability describes the capacity that one accepts the vague and the unsolved. Keat came up with this theory following the assorted happenings that emerged both in his life and poesy work and he puts it frontward by the usage of the bend.
Walter Jackson Bate, Keat ‘s most celebrated biographer does non do any accent on Keats wit. However, he acknowledges the fact that Keat possesses a ‘fizzy absurdness. ‘ It ‘s this wit that grows on the turn-jokes, as merger clout lines and set-ups, about prototype of surprise and construction. As we will see in this context, turns appeared throughout Keats oeuvre every bit good as his light poetry.
It ‘s offhand and difficult to believe of comedy, drama, humor or pleasance in relation to a serious laid out poesy. The connexion between these two diverse literary plants may even be more ambitious for people to associate and hold on. Poetry is non merely a mere statement of personal look or art but it ‘s dependent on the quality of formal drama. This quality conflicts with false fluency and mawkishness. It makes a proviso of alienation that permits a verse form to setup itself as a petroleum concept in its won authorization and rights.
Structural drama or as M.L Rosenthal calls it ‘formal drama ‘ in his work, ‘The Poet ‘s Art, ‘ there is a infinitesimal separation between the critical serious poesy and the critical comedic that gives an feeling at the really first glimpse. Such close relation is apparent in Keat ‘s assorted verse forms and prose.
On March 13th 1818, Keats sends a missive to Benjamin Bailey his friend. Through this missive, a disclosure is made of how important the bend is to him in a witty and serious mode. In this correspondence, Keat lists “ existent things, semi-real and no things. ‘ the being of the stars and the Moon and the transitions of Shakespeare, are some of the existent things that are mentioned by Keat ( Grant 6 ) .This statement is an apparent portraiture of Keats ‘s significant world that has been brought out as surprising poetic bend. Keat has brought out this manner rather witty by incorporating the astronomical organic structures viz. the Moon and the stars with a instead out of topographic point and a different topic all together: Shakespeare ‘s Hagiographas. Despite the statement get downing on a serious note through the usage of instead difficult to understand elements like the Moon and stars, Keat incorporates wit in the same statement by utilizing the bend to advert the transitions of Shakespeare. The set-up and punch line is the structural schemes of the gag that is deployed by Keat in this prose. This deployment is made usage of to give the feeling of how such schemes are existent every bit good as to him.
In utilizing the phrase ‘the stars and the Moon and the transitions of Shakespeare, are some of the existent things, ‘ ( Grant 6 ) .one of Keat ‘s mind is behind this poetic Volta. He shifts his thoughts from scientific objects to Shakespeare ‘s literary work. When depth psychology is applied in this context utilizing Jung ‘s theoretical account of the mind to unearth Keat ‘s mind assorted the reader comes up with assorted decisions. Keat ‘s self-importance is the most likely mind that is behind this poetic Volta.
Ego is the curious witting ego to an person. Ego plays five distinguishable functions that include the stableness of individuality, stableness of individual, world testing, knowledge and the executive map. It ‘s this component of self-importance that makes an single predictable and dependable as clip goes by. Through self-importance, we get the on-going sense of personality. Through this, we are able to foretell what those close to us with do over a given period of clip. We besides get a sense of ego that is stable over clip. Through self-importance, we besides have the capableness of processing and hive awaying information every bit good as to remember it after a given period of clip. Through the same component, we are besides able to transport out the universe ‘s day-to-day demands. Ego eventually assists us in proving world by supplying us with the capableness to esteem and obey purgative ‘s basic Torahs.
It ‘s apparent in the missive that Keat wrote to his friend Benjamin Bailey that he the self-importance mind was used in composing the phrase ‘the stars and the Moon and the transitions of Shakespeare, are some of the existent things ‘ ( Grant 6 ) . In this context, Keat has shown his regard and obeisance to the Torahs of natural philosophies. He has recognized the Moon and the stars as being existent and in being. The Ego ( self-aware module or I ) , harmonizing to Jung has four maps that are dependent and inseparable. There are four diverse basic methods of perceiving and interpretation world and the two methods involved are used in reacting to the same. Keat has perceived the component of the being of existent things. These are the things that are manner over his apprehension and the lone people that can understand their being clearly are the spacemans. However, he goes further non merely to comprehend them but to construe them every bit good. This is one of the apparent elements of Keat ‘s self-importance.
The displacement of Keat ‘s thoughts from serious affairs to rater amusing 1s is what would be referred in mention to Jung as individualization or the ‘true personality. ‘ The human mind contains something which with clip battles back to bring forth the ‘true personality. ‘ This is the basicss of the individualization procedure that is involved with the bridging of the spread between the ego-consciousness of the mundane universe and the archetypal universe of the unconscious hoarded wealths as one tries to realize the single mind of the alone potencies. Keat has used this manner of poetic bend in his works sanding out from most of the poets at the clip. Many of these poets wrote verse forms like mere narrative that tells a consecutive narrative. Many readers have besides looked at many verse forms from such a lead oning position. However, any reader that is interested in narrative through verse forms would be defeated if he decided to analyze Keat ‘s verse form. One certain thing that a reader should bear in head when looking for Keat ‘s works is that the manner the manner they start is really diverse from their stoping. A reader would be lost in imaginativeness to believe of how a poet would unite physical facts with literary work and still give the verse form a gustatory sensation of wit while still turn toing complex and serious issues. This is one of the most recognized poetic bends that Keat is still related to. He ever had a manner of altering the way of his ideas to a new and wholly different thought. However, he still maintained the harmoniousness of the verse form and did non at any one clip navigate from his primary thought and motive of the verse form.
Keat has proved to be a well informed poet due to the usage of the poetic bend in his works. Merely as Randall Jarell provinces in the ‘Levels and antonyms: Structure and poesy ‘ Georgia Review of 1996, a successful verse form starts from one place and ends at a really different one, frequently a contradictory or opposite one ; yet there has been no interruption in the integrity of the verse form ” ( Andrew 8 ) A T.S. Eliot on the other terminal goes on to state in “ Andrew Marvell [ Selected Essays: New Edition ( New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1950 ) , 251-63 ] , ” that the surprising poetic bend is the most important manner of effects in poesy since Homer ( Andrew 8 ) .
Poetic bend is one of the most important and shared manner in the English poesy. One may nevertheless non recognize this important poetic ingredient and when we think about poesy in general, it might non acquire into our consciousness instantly. A reader should be able to look into and come up with a solid decision of the importance of the bend. In most instances, readers every bit good as poets have undermined the function played by the bend. This has led them to come up with verse forms that are more or less like a usual narrative of novels. We should be distinguish between field verse forms that have no bend integrated in them and those that has used this simple but really important component. We should besides be able to place the ground as to why we find the bend to be non a really momentous portion of our sagaciousness of the significance of verse forms and the function played by the same.
The Keat ‘s mind that is unearthed in this context and that he tries to hide from his readers is the personal unconsciousness. Harmonizing to Jung, there are assorted composites that are contained in the personal unconscious. The inherent aptitudes and the originals are contained in the corporate unconscious. When consciousness with order is equated with the unconscious with pandemonium, from Jung ‘s theoretical account of mind we give to the decision that the two extremes have sandwiched our personal unconscious. This can hence be viewed as a complexness part in which order and witting relationships and that between pandemonium and unconscious can be seen. This is refereed as the imaginativeness monarchy. When a reader finds these secrets behind Keat ‘s mind, he is hence able to unveil the concealed significance of Keat ‘s work. The penetration perceived through this realisation helps the reader to hold a deeper connexion and reading of Keat ‘s verse form. However, without anterior survey of Jung ‘s theoretical account of the mind, it would be even more ambitious to acquire to the underside of the topic discussed in Keat ‘s work.
A reader ‘s most convenient manner of unearthing Keat ‘s mind is by uniting the psychoanalytic theory and poetic bends. These two elements provide a great main road towards nearing Keat ‘s existent ego and uncovering it in his works. This existent ego accordingly reaches the individualization. The individualization procedure as Jung puts it is that patterned advance of an single towards realisation of himself. This realisation of one ego gives the reader a much greater penetration towards holding a more defined apprehension and reading of Keats works. The individualization procedure involves an person ‘s credence of his unconsciousness contents. At this phase, he is said to hold reached the individualization procedure. Poetic bends are really confounding even a author is non good informed on their use. However, with the individualization procedure, one is able to associate to everything around him and in this instance, Keat ‘s works. With this realisation, the reading of Keat ‘s work becomes even more merriment to analyze. In fact, a reader gets used to the poetic bends in such a manner that he is able to find the quality of verse forms and distinguish between those that have used the poetic bends and those that have given a field narrative. Turns do non merely raise the quality of a verse form but it boosts the penetration of a reader towards assorted poesy plants.
Another important bend portrayed in Keat ‘s work is his October 27th 1818 missive to Richard Woodhouse. In this missive, Keat once more makes usage of the bend in a really dramatic signifier. Despite the thoughts being linked, the missive takes another different bend as it ends. The anterior penetration that a reader experiences as he goes through the missive are twisted in a manner that they tend to altar the initial significance of the missive. This is a technique that was common with Keat that he used to hide his thoughts from the readers doing them delve deeper into his works to happen the intended significances.
In Keat ‘s missive to Richard Woodhouse, he criticizes the empty poetic character ‘s possible. In this context he says “ [ It ] has no self – it is every thing and nil – It has no character – it enjoys light and shade ; [ … ] ( Andrew 8 ) A and continues to state that some of the things that delight to a chameleon poet daze the virtuous philosopher. Keat describes a poet as being the lone thing in being that is most unpoetical. This is due to the exclusive ground that he has no individuality and is continually in topographic point of another organic structure while make fulling another one on the other side. She describes work forces, adult females, sea, Moon and the Sun as animals that are poetical and of impulse and that they possess and unchangeable feature. However, a poet has none of the above and neither does he hold an individuality. Keat summarizes this by stating that a poet is the most unpoetical of all animals in God ‘s creative activity ( Andrew 8 ) .A This missive is a good portraiture of Keat ‘s realisation of his ain usage of the bend. He is rather cognizant that a poet has the freedom to command his authorship and non to follow any set construction. A bend may look to be a mix up of thoughts in a verse form but the fact is that it upgrades the context of a verse form.
The freedom of a poet as described by Keat can be further explained utilizing Jung ‘s theoretical accounts of mind. In this context, the unfastened system theoretical account goes along good with the context of the missive that Keat wrote to Woodhouse. In Jung ‘s unfastened system theoretical account, self is the centre of the mind. The same instance applies to Keat. He took the control of his works through his head. He was hence able to do independent determination that did non follow another poet ‘s standards but instead his ain head and will. He is able to steer through assorted topics and put them in the same text. The diverseness between these unrelated topics were used by Keat to convey out even a more strong poetic bend creates a concrete context of contrast between the initial and the former thoughts.
In Jung ‘s unfastened system theoretical account, the ego is brought to equilibrium by the self-importance merged with the character ‘s shadow. Equally much as Keat used the bend in his work he made certain that he balanced the two beliing thoughts. This brought out a sense of equilibrium whereby despite the two parts being diverse, none took the full control of the work. As a consequence, a reader is able to travel through such work without being biased in either side of it. He maintains a sense of harmoniousness and independency between the two contradicting parts in the work. At one terminal of the Jung ‘s unfastened system theoretical account is the witting, there is a filter which is the character to the external universe of self-importance. At the other terminal is the unconscious whereby the filter to the corporate unconscious is the original of the animosity or anima. The self-importance creates the character a mechanism, of defence for the shadow and there occurs equilibrium between the two energies.
Keat ‘s uses his character to incorporate both the witting and the unconscious thoughts. Again this brings about a complex and concealed significance to the motive of his missive to Woodhouse. The receiver of the missive every bit good as the reader has to therefore utilize his character excessively to distinguish between the witting and the unconscious elements. By finding the boundary that separates the unconscious and the witting elements, the reader is able to find Keat ‘s intended significance of the bend. These two elements accompany each other and are inseparable. One should hence be able to find the thin line dividing them so as to come up with a better defined decision.
Therefore by analyzing Keats poesy we can acquire an apprehension of his mind. The individuality or Idaho is the portion of the personality that lives in the bomber witting and unconscious portion of the head ; nevertheless it is non alive to our immediate idea. The self-importance merely like the individuality is besides found in the unconscious and sub witting portion of the head. The self-importance is the retainer of the Idaho and attempts to run into its demands realistically. The ace self-importance on the other manus is the moral portion of the head. It is full of values and beliefs such as pureness and conformance. Carl Jung besides a great mind and bookman in the field of psychological science developed analytical psychological science. Jung borrows a batch from Freud school of idea.Jung posited that the human mind consists of the witting and unconscious. The witting and unconscious parts work in tandem nevertheless the witting still maintains its liberty. This is what is referred to as individualization. His plants in analytical psychological science rallied bend individualization.
The verse form Bright Star is about Keats relationship with his love of his life Fanny Brawne. In this short verse form Keats uses literary techniques and rime to convey out his interior feelings for the love of his life. When Keats is turn toing Fanny in the first two lines of the verse form the individuality is behind this poetic Volta. He says ” Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art. Not in lone luster hung aloft the dark ” ( Elisha, 23 ) . Keats says that it is his wish to be around Fanny everlastingly. That clip will be unchanging and there will be no terminal to clip. This is because the star will ever be at that place despite the alteration of clip and events. The star depicts ageless clip. Through this he is prosecuting in imaginativeness and desirous thought because this is non possible. Time will finally come to an terminal. Their love for one another will finally be cut short by an event, it can non last everlastingly. The Idaho engages in this imaginativeness perchance as a manner of tenseness decrease for he does non cognize what will transpirate between him and his love.
The Idaho more than non engages in unprompted inclinations that may be harmful to itself and other people. It is a selfish personality. This is the ground why he would instead decease than unrecorded without his love. In the last line of Bright star Keats says “ And so lives of all time or else faints to decease ” ( Elisha, 23 ) . This is an self-importance defence mechanism. This is because his self-importance is under strain and therefore it attempts non to believe the fact that their love will come to an terminal. This may impute to his personal and historical background. Fanny Brawne shared the same first name with Keats female parent and sister. This likely made Keats experience attracted to Fanny more. Having lost his female parent she was a balance and likely saw her female parent in her. Therefore Keats did at no clip desire to conceive of that he would free yet another portion of himself. The rubric of the verse form Bright star is besides symbolic in that his life was full of darkness, decease, depression due to his fiscal jobs. Fanny was the star that lit up his life. Sing the death, or if Fanny would interrupt up with him this would convey darkness back to his life.
Individualization is integrated by two procedures of human ripening. The first phase is the version of 1s life in the first half of his or her life. The 2nd phase is characterized by the relationship between the unconscious portion and the self-importance. Keats was a immature adult male and hence still accommodating to his surrounding and the universe around him in the first half of his life. Therefore Keats was more concerned with version during the 3rd stage of the fist half of his life Keats strives to larn about his male parent universe as Jung called it. Therefore he comes interested and craves to associate with members of the opposite sex. He adopts a masculine figure in a command to pull a female spouse.It is during this stage that Keats falls in love with Isabella who he kissed and warmed up with. It is besides during this period that he falls in love with Fanny until when he breaths his last. He loved her so much that ” All his desires were concentrated on her ”
In the Poem a draft of sunlight John Keats lays more accent on the religious. Just like in any religion or faith the universe over the psyche is portion of the human being. Most people believe that the psyche is different from the human organic structure although the psyche embodies the organic structure. In the 13th line to the 20th line Keats says ” God of the Meridian. To thee my psyche is flown. And the organic structure is earthward imperativeness ‘d. It is an atrocious mission. A awful division ; and leaves a gulph austere to be filled with secular fright ” ( Stillinger 53 ) . Keats likely wrote this verse form when he was ailing from terminal TB and likely in his decease bed. He states that his psyche has really flown out of his organic structure and to his Godhead. Keats understands that life is rough an atrocious mission. He has encountered so much hurting and agony and is now left with a secular sense. The separation with his psyche leaves him digesting alone hours.
Keats is even despairing to yield to illness and finally decease. He says “ Aye, when the psyche is fled to high above our caput, Affrighted do we stare after its airy labyrinth, as doth a female parent natural state, when her immature baby kid, is in bird of Joves claws ” ( Stillinger 54 ) . The usage of this imagination picturing a female parent doomed from her kid shows this despair. Keats lost his male parent and female parent at a immature age and his brother follows suits. Most of his life he grows up with his grandma. After the decease of his brother Tom he besides falls sick.His ailing therefore puts him in such a place that he wishes that he would decease. The self-importance is portion of the mind behind this poetic Volta. The ego Acts of the Apostless as an mediator between the individuality and the external universe. The self-importance is the executor of the personality by keeping minutess with the external universe in the involvement of the Fuller personality.
Due to his hurting and agony Keats sees the lone manner out is decease. It is merely realistic thing to make. That it is decease which will convey him peace and fulfilment which has for long been evading him. The self-importance in this instance is seeking to run into Keats need realistically. The self-importance defensive mechanism is reaction. This is because showing an impulse by its antonym. This manner he will likely cut down anxiousness.
Although Keats life was viciously cut short his imaginativeness and poetic art is admirable. Imagination is inspired by the consciousness through dreams and visions. Keats evokes the egoless and ego of the human head. Keats typified negative capableness. This is because persons need a much more life span to develop and recognize such literary highs as Keats attained. This is a really rare effort yet Keats attained this even without the counsel of a guru. It is as if Keats compressed his 2nd stage of life to suit in the first stage. He wrote all his verse forms within a period of four old ages.an unenviable more than one hundred and 50 verse forms. His degree of self creativeness is admirable and so is his purpose and vision. Keats says that “ what is originative must besides do originative ” ( Wolfson 78 ) . Keats psychological ripening is fascinating every bit good as matchless. This critical instability can be attributed to his historical background where he was forced to go more mature and responsible at an early age.
Individualization in the Jungian theoretical account of self realisation is a balance and synthesis of the witting and unconscious.Keats poetry is non merely self originative but besides a journey of development of the ego. Recognizing and understanding his or her deepest and innermost ego as being Godhead and incorporate. This is a dualism of Godhead and humane that an single embracings in their hunt upon life manner.
Keats wrote the verse form Galloway vocal because “ Brown wanted to enforce a Galloway vocal upon Dilke but it wo n’t make. The topic I got from run intoing a nuptials merely as we came down into this topographic point ” ( Wolfson 37 ) , a journey of ego healing and development. Keats strives for the inner flicker which is Godhead. This is likely due to the realisation that religious nutriment and deity is of import. There is the relationship between human characteristics, an mutuality and relatedness that works for the improvement of the whole.Such self-generated and even unpredictable natural procedures continue to wonder people scientist included.
Keats work was non embraced to the full by some, alternatively the criticized his plant. This is because to them he did non belong to the echelons of the literary universe. This partially because he did non hold the opportunity to go to esteemed schools unlike his predecessor ‘s.Another factor was that because he was immature and lacked the necessary experience. Besides some of his critics claimed that his manner of composing could non be classified as Romanticism. To them he was an foreigner despite his art and giftedness in poesy. This wall of unfavorable judgment is what Jung would name ‘intuitive introvert ‘ ( Dunne 67 ) . A wall of intellectualism that is pig-headedly acute on keeping its bequest and even position quo.This unfavorable judgment is non based on fact or logic but alternatively it is below the belt biased because they do non utilize the same aim and subjective trials when it applies to their instance.
John Keats poesy epitomizes a adult male who lived his life and died intensely. His works motivate and inspire people. It motivates the person to dig and seek out their true naming to life. Keats may hold died immature but he achieved and accomplished his desire of being a poet if his bequest is anything to travel by.
Grant, Scott. Selected Letterss of John Keats ed. U.S: Harvard University Press. 2002.
Andrew, Marvell. Selected Essaies: New Edition. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1950.
Elisha, Horace. The Complete Poetical Works and Letters of John Keats.USA:
Riverside Press. 1899.
Stillinger, Jack. John Keats: Poetry Manuscripts at Harvard, a Facsimile