An Excerpt Of Khrushchevs Secret Speech English Literature Essay Free Essay

The beginning provided is an extract of Khrushchevs secret address which can be analysed to demo the influence of Stalins myths. The Speech, nevertheless does non give a existent image of Stalin.

Myths environing Stalin were generated by a ‘cult of personality ‘ which founded a ‘state-manufactured myth ‘ that were merely refering Stalin himself. ( Pittaway, 2008, p.137 ) Stalin supported the glory of himself and used all imaginable methods to accomplish promote himself in a ‘god- like ‘ manner.

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When Stalin died in 1953 his myths remained strong throughout the Soviet Union. With the positive myths of Stalin still strong Khrushchev would hold a hard clip to convert people that the ways of Stalin were non acceptable. Once Khrushchev became the most powerful adult male in the Soviet Union ( Pittaway, 2008, p.136 ) he was safe to show his positions on Stalin ‘s absolutism without being stripped of his power.

In 1956 Khrushchev took his address to the Soviet Congress. By denouncing Stalin in an official Congress run intoing his statement would hold been strengthened, and the Congress would be more receptive to what Khrushchev had to state.

Khrushchev compared Stalin to Lenin. Lenin ‘s actions were seen as justifiable and that terrible methods were merely of all time used when needed ( Khrushchev, in Assignment Booklet, 2012, p.23 )

Although Khrushchev did non depict Stalin ‘s offenses in item, for fright of adverting his engagement, he did advert the manner that the offenses were carried out. Stalin is said to hold abused his power, ( Khrushchev, in Assignment Booklet, 2012, p.23 ) and used ‘extreme methods when the revolution was already winning. ‘ ( Khrushchev, in Assignment Booklet, 2012, p.23 ) At the clip Stalin ‘s positive myths outweighed the negative and many of the repressions were defended as ‘conspiracies ‘ from ‘external enemies. ‘ ( Pittaway, 2008, p.131 ) but Khrushchev pointed out Stalin ‘s Violent and tyrant traits and held him responsible for everything. In the 1930s and 1940s many saw Stalin as a ‘great and wise ‘ leader and blamed the local functionaries for the want, so by reiterating the words ‘brutal ‘ and ‘repression ‘ the Congress were forced to believe about Stalin ‘s personality and behavior. This onslaught on Stalin ‘s personality kept the Congress believing about Stalin ‘s actions instead than Khrushchev ‘s motivations.

Stalin ‘s ferociousness was non intended for the ‘actual enemies ‘ , but besides for anyone who disagreed with him including the party who supported him. The party would be cognizant of this, but the construct of the ‘enemy of the people ‘ would warrant Stalin ‘s actions, and supply Khrushchev with the ability to demo this was Stalin ‘s manner of procuring power.

Khrushchev could corroborate that the Soviet Congress all had a portion to play in Stalin ‘s government, in which Khrushchev excused them. He stated Stalin was merely concerned with the image he portrayed and ‘ceased to see the general commission or the party ‘ ( Khrushchev, in Assignment Booklet,2012, p.23 ) Khrushchev besides pointed out that that Stalin saw himself ‘above the party and the state ‘ and did n’t really care for them or what they did.

Replacing Stalin ‘s myths meant that Khrushchev could utilize the state of affairs to cover his old image with one that would appeal to the Soviet Union as a virtuous leader and take the Soviet Union into a new way. If Khrushchev had challenged the myths environing Stalin, his statement that Stalin was a brutal, violent leader who cared merely for his ain addition, would non hold had the strength of a new myth, turn outing that the creative activity of myth is powerful. ( 568 Wordss )


Khrushchev, 1956. Congressional Record: Proceddings and Arguments of the 84th Congress reprinted in AA100 Assignment Booklet ( 2012 ) . In: Assignment Booklet. Milton Keynes: The Open University, p. 23.

Pittaway, M. , 2008. ‘Stalin ‘ . In: E. Moohan, erectile dysfunction. Reputations ( AA100 BOOK 1 ) . Milton Keynes: The Open University, pp. 123-160.

Part 2

Read the undermentioned verse form by Thomas Hardy ( ‘The Oxen ‘ ) and Seamus Heaney ( ‘Cow in Calf ‘ ) in The Faber Book of Beasts ( pp.195 and 62 ) . In no more than 600 words, compare the ways in which the two poets represent cowss.

New signifiers of poesy, nevertheless extremist they appear, about ever show hints of tradition. ( Danson Brown, 2008, p.63 )

‘The Oxen ‘ written by Thomas Hardy and ‘Cow in Calf ‘ by Seamus Heaney show important differences but besides portion some common traditional qualities.

‘The Oxen ‘ is a narrative verse form stating the reader a narrative about Christmas, and about the cattle, that harmonizing to common people tradition would kneel at midnight in Christmas Eve. It besides follows the talker ‘s, Hardy ‘s, belief of the tradition. ‘Cow in Calf ‘ is an Imagery verse form which illustrates an image instead than stating a narrative. The verse form represents a cow that is to a great extent pregnant, and the natural rhythm of life.

Traditional Styles of poesy, that include quatrains and riming lines can be seen in ‘The Oxen ‘ , which follows an ABAB rhyming strategy. The rhyming words at the terminal of each jumping line create an about song-like beat. Rhyming verse forms are easier to retrieve and let the reader to link to the verse form through memory instead than merely reading the words entirely. The consistent beat of the verse form can besides stand for the manner cattle move at a slow steady gait.

The absence of a riming form from Heaney ‘s verse form non merely avoids the traditional poetic signifiers, but enables him to utilize words freely to portray his topic. Without being restricted to any traditional construction Heaney non merely uses his linguistic communication accomplishments to set up his images he can besides utilize they layout of his stanzas to stand for his pregnant cow by utilizing enjambement. ‘Cow in Calf ‘ has three stanzas all of different length. The first stanza contains three lines, the 2nd, six lines and the 3rd stanza five lines. With 14 lines this verse form is a sonnet, which can be seen as a traditional manner of poesy used by the like of Shakespeare.

To stand for the cowss with words, Hardy and Heaney use a figure of traditional devices, including initial rhyme and repeat. To beef up the tone alteration in the 3rd Stanza, where Hardy is gaining that the traditions past down may be fictional, the bulk of Hardy ‘s initial rhyme is used. The initial rhyme in this stanza can besides be interpreted as choler about all the words used are monosyllabic. ‘Fair ‘ , ‘fancy ‘ and ‘few ‘ , ‘Years. Yet ‘ and ‘some ‘ , ‘said ‘ and ‘see ‘ ( ‘The Oxen ‘ , Lines 9 – 12 ) .

Heaney uses Alliteration in ‘Cow and calf ‘ and besides the senses, such as sight, sound and touch that every reader would associate to bring forth a stronger image. The initial rhyme is distributed over the first two stanzas. In the first stanza, ‘barrel ‘ and ‘belly ‘ ( ‘Cow in Calf ‘ , Line 1-3 ) , are used to make an image of a unit of ammunition object, such as the pregnant cow. This besides provides grounds of the sense of sight. In the 2nd stanza there is grounds of the sense of sound and motion with the onomatopoeic words ‘slapping ‘ , ‘seed ‘ and ‘strapped ‘ making the sense of motion as the manus slaps the cow out of the cowbarn and alliterated words, ‘blows ‘ and ‘bomb ‘ ( ‘Cow in Calf ‘ , Lines 7-8 ) perchance making the deep sound heard, like a bass, as the manus work stoppages.

To depict his verse form in greater item Heaney has to utilize farther devices which were used by traditional poets, such as metaphors and similes and vowel rhyme. As Hardy does non necessitate to depict his verse form in great item he does non include these devices.

The concluding Stanza in ‘The Oxen ‘ , Hardy juxtaposes words to make a contrast or sense of confusion, ‘Childhood ‘ , ‘Used to ‘ and ‘Hoping ‘ and ‘Gloom ‘ ( ‘The Oxen ‘ , Lines 14- 16 ) . In this Stanza Hardy is loath to give up the traditions merely in instance.

Heaney, by utilizing the traditional poetic devices, has proved the statement that dissenting signifiers of poesy about ever show hints of tradition ; and Hardy has shown tradition through the narrative of his verse form.

( 635 Wordss )

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