Cognitive Mapping And The Physical Environment English Literature Essay Free Essay

Society invents a specious convoluted logic tae absorb and alteration people whaes behavior is outside its mainstream. Suppose that ah ken aw the pros and cons, know that ah ‘m gaunnae huv a short life, am ah sound head, ectetera, ectetera, but still want tae usage slap? [ aˆ¦ ] The fact that ye jist merely choose tae reject whut they huv tae offer…[ 1 ]

The above are the ideas of Mark Renton, one of the cardinal characters in the 1993 novel Trainspotting and are written in Scots English[ 2 ]. To compose in this manner aid ‘s show who is talking, their place, nationality and category ; while the context of the paragraph may hold been to show the thought of experiencing ‘not-of-this-place ‘ in which they resided, “ a subject that had haunted the period since 1945. ”[ 3 ]This thought of non belonging and trying to displace one ‘s ego is a subject found to be rather outstanding within the 2nd novel of Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, 1958:

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Once a Rebel, ever a Rebel [ aˆ¦ ] it ‘s best to be a Rebel so as to demo ’em it do n’t pay to seek to make you down. Factories and labour [ aˆ¦ ] maintain us alive and kicking – so they say – but they ‘re booby-traps and will suck you under like sinking-sands if you ‘re non careful… ”[ 4 ]

Using these two transitions as a accelerator, this paper will be set out as a brace of mini-essays, each analyzing the chief characters from the said novels. Get downing with Trainspotting I will be analyzing ‘Mark Renton ‘ ( aka ‘Renton ) ; From Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, the focal point will be on ‘Author Seaton ‘ . One will look at the political orientation on the characters public presentation, individuality, their personality and their sense of belonging and how they may be swayed by their mental and physical milieus.

Evidence will besides be viewed with the purpose to see how their behaviors and thoughts may hold been affected or even to an extent ‘created ‘ by the character ‘s backgrounds, the times of the novels, their scenes and where these characters had fictitiously grown-up.

Saturday Night and Sunday Morning:

Arthur Seaton is described as a physically-fit, blue-eyed, 21 twelvemonth old who battles to remain free of society, employers and committedness. He is a “ tall, iron-faced, crop-haired young person ”[ 5 ]who works long hours as a lathe operator in a bike mill[ 6 ], but whom takes portion in rambunctious and harmful imbibing[ 7 ]Sessionss each weekend. Just one of the grounds why may be linked to the physical and societal environment of which he found himself is as follows:

For it was Saturday dark, the best and bingiest glad-time of the hebdomad [ aˆ¦ ] the consequence of a hebdomad ‘s humdrum transplant in the mill was swilled out of your system in a explosion of good will. You followed the slogan of ‘be rummy and be happy, ‘ kept your cunning weaponries around female waists, and felt the beer traveling beneficially down into the elastic capacity of your backbones.[ 8 ]

This is the period of the mid 1950 ‘s, described as the “ the early old ages of Rock and Roll ”[ 9 ], a clip that generated an incursion of nines and other locales where people would travel to imbibe, socialise and make all the things these wonts frequently lead to. Author would happen himself led towards these constitutions and so consume to a great extent in response to the environment, act uponing how he thinks.

It that may be interesting to observe that in 1958 ( the day of the month of the novel ‘s publication ) , Jerry Lee Lewis ‘s Great Balls of Fire reached no 1 in the US charts. Although a monolithic hit by the vocalist, it was a shocking vocal by person who had polemically antecedently married a 13 twelvemonth old.[ 10 ]Lewis, a function theoretical account for the coevals, had ignored ideals and what people were to believe of his actions ; this is similar to Arthur who went about his concern as one reads “ I ‘m holding a good life, and do n’t care about anything ” .[ 11 ]

This decennary had many others influences on the novel ‘s characters. For illustration, it was the twelvemonth that the European Economic Community ( EEC ) Common Market started operations, which sort a jurisprudence to vouch “ Free motion of individuals, services and capital ”[ 12 ]. This reminds us how Arthur wishes non to be bound by regulations and outlooks: “ Do n’t allow the assholes grind you down ”[ 13 ]. This was Arthur ‘s response to being positioned ; in respects to the line “ All I ‘m out for is a good clip – all the remainder is propaganda ”[ 14 ], one see ‘s Arthur had a mental conflict with the system.[ 15 ]

On another country of political analysis, one remembers that adult females ‘s rights continued to stay limited through this decennary ;[ 16 ]here we see work forces still regarded as the superior, merely as there was still immense divergence in the different categories of people.[ 17 ]This may be why Arthur dates married adult females without any true sense of caring for them – first Brenda, so Winnie – and surely had no respect for their hubbies.

Towards the terminal of this book, and after a whipping from Winnie ‘s hubby ‘s soldier couples, we see Arthur eventually leting ‘some ‘ defined alteration in his life based on society ‘s outlooks. Arthur accepts that it may non be all that bad after all ; nevertheless, this does n’t needfully claim to be the terminal of his beliefs, but merely his actions:

“ If you went through life declining all the come-on dangled in forepart of you, that would be no life at all. No alterations would be made and you would hold nil to contend against. Life would be dull as ditchwater. ”[ 18 ]


Mark Renton ‘ could be described as a kind of hero/bad-guy in the novel in a comparative manner to those around him ; he is the rational 1. As the storyteller, his characters thought way is “ heatedly debated for its harrowing and dark-humoured word picture of [ aˆ¦ ] Edinburgh [ ‘s ] diacetylmorphine nuts. ”[ 19 ]However, although he allies with a group of people one might label ‘friends ‘ , we know he despises them as he recites his feelings towards them: “ Couples are a waste of bally clip. They are ever ready to drag you down tae their degree of societal, sexual, and rational averageness. ”[ 20 ]

It is clear that he does n’t truly wish what they are all making but he is influenced by these people and the drugs they use ; he excessively uses heroine to get away from the outlooks and force per unit areas of life. However, unlike his couples, we know that Renton is good educated from the manner he talks and quotes from novels and acclaimed authors, as one re-counts the ill-famed transition:

Choose life. Choose mortgage payments ; take rinsing machines ; take autos ; take sitting oan a couch observation mind-numbing and spirit-crushing game shows, stuffing fuckin debris nutrient intae yir mooth. Choose decomposing off, pishing and shiteing yersel in a place, a entire screw embarrassment tae the selfish, snafu terrors ye ‘ve produced. Choose life.[ 21 ]

Renton extends this with his academic-like answer to his apprehension of the corporate statement: “ Well, I choose no tae choose life. [ aˆ¦ ] As Harry Lauder sais, ah jist intend tae maintain right on to the terminal of the route… ”[ 22 ]

So, he may be well-cultured but still he consciously pumps heroine into his venas. The difference here is that, every bit good as his equal force per unit area, it seems his background cognition may be what has given him ( in his head ) a logical ground for utilizing drugs: For a short clip, it helps him bury our being which he views as futile: “ We fill up oor ( our ) lives wi ( with ) crap, things like callings and relationships tae ( to ) delude ourselves that it isnae ( is non ) pointless. ”[ 23 ]

Whether Renton is angry at the universe, or merely the topographic point he finds himself every twenty-four hours, one can see grounds he lacks, or denies self-identity, i.e. being Scots, as he feels Scotland is “ colonized by tossers ” .[ 24 ]He ‘s besides angry at the manner Scotland is governed and provinces: “ they should get rid of the fuckin batch ay them. Kill every fuckin parasite politician… ”[ 25 ]

The novel is set in the late eightiess[ 26 ]go arounding around several dwellers of Leith, ( Edinburgh ) whose dwellers use diacetylmorphine, associate with heroin consumers, or take portion in other detrimental projects that can be depicted as dependences. The town of Leith itself had been and still is ill-famed for its drug scene.[ 27 ]28

Many other things were go oning throughout this clip that one can associate to the character ‘s behaviour, but drug use/abuse is certainly the most outstanding and greatest influences on Renton. However, the novel does flip as it ends, instead equivocally, with Renton bewraying his friends and the heroine by heading for Amsterdam with money they had all acquired from a drug trade.


Through looking at these two different novels, written many decennaries apart one can see that the characters ‘ lives are influenced consciously and unconsciously by everything they see, hear, feel, learn and inquiry. It seems no affair what, “ opposition or surrenderaˆ¦you are either your ain ego or their ego ” .[ 29 ]

Both these characters play strongly to the impression of genuineness in that “ Each one of us has an original manner of being human[ 30 ]“ ( Duguid ) . Despite the temptingness of the drugs and influence of friends, Renton knows what is right and so attempts to clean up and acquire out of the bad wonts of his being ; Arthur does non ab initio see any jobs with his destructive manner of life nevertheless, through assorted events ( and over clip ) , he excessively decides it ‘s clip to alter and stop ( at least some of ) his noncompliant life style.

The characters find themselves swayed by their milieus and made-up-upbringings: this is possibly more so done in authorship of this manner, as both these novels are realistic and represent topographic points that do be, and many of the characters traits can be found within worlds.

Both character ‘s cognitive function has been to a great extent influenced by their environments ; both in their initial position, and their later changed and improved mentalities. This means that as a effect of their milieus, both characters plan a more acknowledged and socially acceptable but about surely ‘lesser ‘ reliable manner of being.

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