Discussing The Theme Of Human Animal Transformations English Literature Essay Free Essay

Animals, throughout history, have held an of import topographic point in literature, and have acted as symbols and representations of society, economic sciences and human relationships. Possibly the most good know illustration of this are Aesop ‘s Fables, thought to hold been written in 150 BC, in which animate beings such as The Hare and the Tortoise and The Lion and the Mouse which were written to function as moral guidelines. These early animate being narratives tended to be spiritual narratives, for illustration, in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible animate beings are shown to stand for assorted human and godly properties such as the serpent, the swine, and the lamb. Similarly, Native Indian civilizations have used narratives of animate beings to assist explicate the enigmas of life and the existence, as have people in Asia, India, South America, and Africa. However, following the publication of Charles Darwin ‘s controversial book Origin ‘s of Speciess in 1859 which advanced the theory that worlds had evolved from animate beings instead than being created individually, animate beings in literature began to take on a more actual significance. In his book The Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka uses the traditional animate being fable construction to joint his angst against 20th century society. In the ulterior portion of the century the usage of animate beings in literature became an of import tool in gender surveies and adult females ‘s literature. Female writers portrayed the battles and confines of the carnal universe as a comparing for their ain battles for freedom and equality frequently comparing their limitations to that of a caged animate being. In this essay I will discourse two novels from the 20th century which involve non merely animate beings but the transmutation of worlds into animate beings. The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka and Pig Tales by Marie Darrieussecq both portray the similarities between worlds and animate beings and utilize their chosen animals to stand for their unfavorable judgments of 20th century society.

Franz Kafka was born in Prague in 1883 to an upper-middle category Jewish, German household. Although his female parent was loving she was slightly secondary to his upbringing and his extremely male parent was tyrannizing and both emotionally and physically opprobrious. Throughout his life, Kafka ever felt slightly of an foreigner every bit good as being plagued with guilt about his hate for his male parent who he perceived as ‘a giant of a adult male, my male parent, the ultimate justice, coming to acquire me in the center of the dark[ 1 ]‘ As an grownup, Kafka lived a dual life, working as a clerk by twenty-four hours and authorship by dark, behavior that was extremely disapproved of by his male parent. He ne’er married or had kids and spent most of his grownup life with his parents and sister something that one can see reflected in the Metamorphosis.

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Metamorphosis, is basically a phantasy novel nevertheless, it represents a really existent scenario. A Marxist reading and position shows a worker being abandoned by his employer and household after going unable to work and back up them financially. This is representative of the labor, bourgeoisie struggle described by Marx. Kafka ‘s Metamorphosis is an illustration of a capitalist society dominated by economic sciences and the forsaking of those unable to supply for themselves. Therefore utilizing this position it can be seen that the supporter Gergor represents the labor and his director the middle class.

Gregor, the supporter of is forced to work in a occupation that he hates as a going gross revenues adult male as he is seeking to back up his household and pay off his male parents debts. Gregor ‘s societal position would be defined by Marx and Engels as a member of ‘the category of modern pay laborers who holding no agency of production of their ain are reduced to selling their labour power in order to populate[ 2 ]. ‘ At the beginning of the novel we learn that Gregor has transformed into an insect. The individuality of this animal nevertheless, is ne’er disclosed ; this is because the features of the insect are comparatively unimportant in understanding the struggle and category battles that are happening within the novel. Alternatively the transmutation signifies Gergor ‘s new inability to work and provides a focal point on Gregor ‘s value as a laborer instead than a individual and how this diminishes when he is no longer able to travel out and gain money or back up his household. If Gregor is representative of the labor, so his trough symbolises the middle class and is an illustration of ‘the category of modern capitalists, proprietors of the agencies of societal production and employers of pay laborers.[ 3 ]‘ The director is non given a name which signifies his deficiency of humanity. He besides acts superior as a consequence of his advanced economic place. Kafka ‘s portraiture of the director makes extremely indicates that he is non liked and, if anything encourages the reader to sympathize more with Gregor as an insect than his human trough.

The first to abandon Gregor is his director who leaves every bit shortly as he realises that Gregor is unable to work and is hence of no value to him. As a worker Gregor is valueless unless he can work and therfore to his director he is expendable. The director knows that he will be able to happen a replacing worker. However, one time Gregor becomes unable to back up his household financially they decide to abandon him. Marx claims that ‘the middle class has torn off from the household it ‘s sentimental head covering and has reduced the household relation into a mere money relation[ 4 ]‘ . Kafka ‘s metabolism is a clear illustration of this. Gregor worked in a occupation he hated for old ages seeking to back up his household who so instantly abandon him one time he can no longer gain a pay. His male parent is the most emotionally unattached and trades with Gregor in the harshest mode. Gregor ‘s presence seems to anger his male parent as he clenches his fists and throws fruit at the insect[ 5 ]. Although his female parent and sister Grete are ab initio disquieted and sympathetic towards Gregor – his sister brings him nutrient and cleans his room. However, this fondness dwindles over clip when they cease to have any fiscal support from Gregor. Grete even begins to mention to her brother as ‘it ‘ and provinces that if the bug was truly Gregor he would hold ‘realised long ago that it is n’t perchance for human existences to populate with such a animal and he would hold gone off of his ain free will[ 6 ]‘ . Her indifference towards her brother shows that as a consequence of his transmutation he has ceased to be to her. The relationship of the household was based on shared rewards and one time Gregor could no longer lend to that he no longer existed within the household. This is farther supported by the fact that as a consequence of Gregor ‘s inability to work his male parent and sister have to get down gaining a life. His male parent takes over as caput of the family and his sister flourishes in her new business. As are consequence of this she becomes more beautiful and earns the regard of her parents. Even his female parent becomes stronger and starts to work more around the house. It seems that Gregor ‘s transmutation causes the household to alter their attitude towards working for themselves from being reliant on their boy.

The eventual decision to the Gregor ‘s narrative is his inevitable decease. Once transformed he was no longer able to feed himself and his life depended on the charity of his parents who considered him useless and a fiscal load and so locked him off. However, instead than being upset at their boies decease, his household appear relieved – their economic demands superseded any emotional fond regard that the household had to Gregor and hence they could non love him one time he became a strain on the household. Following his decease, Gregor ‘s household travel to the state, they discuss the economic benefits of non holding to back up Gregor and so travel on to speaking about Grete. They discuss her matrimony and the fiscal benefits of this, it appears that while Grete is financially utile to he her parents she is welcomed as portion of the household but the fresh terminals with a elusive warning that if she started to go a load she could hold the same result as Gregor.

Pig Tales, by Marie Darrieussecq, was published in France in1996 more than 50 old ages after the publication of The Metamorphosis. However, like Kafka, Darrieussecq uses the transmutation of an animate being to supply a critical analogy of society. In this instance our supporter, an nameless storyteller life in an alternate hereafter Paris, who easy turns into a hog. The reader is encouraged to believe that this is as a consequence of her amoral life style. Her gradual transmutation into an animate being is brooding of the alterations happening in the society in which she lives which is going progressively right wing as a consequence of consumer capitalist economy. The novel follows the life of this unidentified miss and begins with her being interviewed at a aroma shop where the manager tells her that ‘The of import thing [ is ] to look lovely and good groomed at all times[ 7 ]‘ . Pig Tales was extremely successful and really popular amongst grownup readers, Sallie Muirden argues in her essay on the novel that this success could be because of the manner that Darrieussecq channels ‘contemporary female bitterness about the patriarchate in a station modernist-feminist epoch, in peculiar theaˆ¦ continued control over what adult females do with their organic structures.[ 8 ]‘ Through her book, Darrieussecq is jointing experiences and feelings that the modern twenty-four hours female reader will be able to associate to. She covering with issues refering the adult females ‘s organic structure and adult females ‘s rights but in a post-modernist women’s rightist mode, as she is reasoning that one may non hold an issue with selling their organic structure and may in fact enjoy working as a cocotte. Although this may be criticised by early women’s rightist as being degrading to adult females, what Darrieussecq is truly contending for, is that we do n’t see her supporter as a victim but instead as adult females doing her ain picks and determinations with respect to her organic structure. Equally, Darrieussecq is non reprobating the adult females in this novel, instead, she is knocking the societal fortunes the storyteller finds herself in which is most likely a consequence of her deficiency of instruction which makes it difficult for her to concentrate[ 9 ]. Her inarticulateness and naivete make it easier for those around her who are corrupt ( chiefly the work forces in the novel ) to take advantage of her which is shown at the beginning of the novel when she is sexually assaulted by the manager during her interview, ‘The manager of Perfumes Plus was keeping my right chest in one manus and the occupation contract in the other[ 10 ]‘ . As a consequence it takes her a long clip to gain that it is her engagement in these corrupt Acts of the Apostless that are doing her evident transmutation and that she must defy form amoral behavior in order to stay human. However, there is still something about the storyteller that makes the reader empathise with her, she is really sincere and has much emotion for others which can be seen in her relationships with Yvan the wolfman and her lost hog babes, ‘I licked the hapless touchs every bit carefully as I could. When they grew cold, I felt as though I could n’t travel on. I curled up in a ball and did n’t believe about anything any more[ 11 ]‘ . Here, her response is protective and stamp which supports my belief that she is inherently good but populating in society that is corrupt. The most dramatic component of the novel is the storytellers metamorphosis into a hog, although there is reference of other characters besides transforming ( Yvan becomes a wolfman at full Moon and the manager of the aroma shop is besides referred to as a hog ) she is the lone character who undergoes a complete and permanent transmutation into an animate being.

Writing for The Guardian, John Mullan argues that ‘Marie Darrieussecqs first book, Pig Tales is clearly a version of Kafka ‘s The Metamorphosis for a ulterior age[ 12 ]‘ . Indeed one can see clear similarities between the two novels, despite the 50 twelvemonth clip period between publications. Both writers use human-animal transmutation to reflect society and issues of their clip. Although Kafka is looking at socialism and Darrieussecq feminism they both deal with issues refering the corruptness of the societies their supporters live in. One can besides see Darrieussecqs unfavorable judgment of the corrupt capitalist Gallic society. However, both writers are composing about a signifier of dystopia influenced by the societies they live in. Kafka was published in Germany in 1915, merely a twelvemonth after the eruption of World War I, when Europe and the remainder of the universe were in a province of great confusion and convulsion. Kafka ‘s work is frequently explored in the context of his ain experiences with disaffection. He was a Judaic Czech life in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, speaking German, alienated from his overbearing male parent, the opposite sex and his desire to foster his passion of literature which conflicted with the confines of his bureaucratic occupation and bourgeois life.

The Metamorphosis begins with what should be the flood tide of the novel, the transmutation of Gregor into an insect. There is no physique up of tenseness merely the immediate declaration within the first sentence, which leaves the reader with the realization that Gregor is a bug and the effects of this fact. Similarly, in Pig Tales we learn from the beginning that something is non right, the storyteller reveals that she is composing when she can the narrative of what happened to her. One major difference between the two novels is that the Metamorphosis ends with Gregor ‘s apparently inevitable decease where as Pig Tales ends with a slightly happy stoping whereby the storyteller leaves behind the letdown of civilisation ( and is happy plenty to withdraw about for good to her hog signifier merely keeping on to her human qualities long plenty to compose her narrative. However, whilst in The Metamorphosis, the transmutation of Gregor, is a really distressing and finally destructive alteration, the transition of the storyteller in Pig Tales from a human to a hog signifies her transmutation to a thought being. Darrieussecq states herself that the novel is ‘the escapade of an anomic adult female ( to the point of non recognizing that she is a cocotte ) aˆ¦ Her organic structure, transforming itself, signifies to her that now, right off, if she wants to last, she is traveling to hold to get down thought.[ 13 ]

A novel that can be compared to both The Metamorphosis and Pig Tales is Animal Farm by George Orwell. Although in this narrative the transmutation takes topographic point from animate being to human instead than human to animal. As with Pig Tales, Orwell chose to do his animate beings hogs, this summons the stereotype that hogs are avaricious and coarse and reduces the characters humanity. However, Orwell ‘s novel is a sarcasm about socialism specifically within the Soviet Union. Here we can see more similarities with The Metamorphosis although Orwell is critical of the socialist government and Kafka is knocking the capitalist one. One could besides reason that there are contemplations of this novel in Pig Tales which can be illustrated by the fascist dictator Edgar and the xenophobic spiritual figure of Marchepiede, nevertheless I think that possibly Pig Tales is more of a prophylactic narrative foretelling a fascist absolutism in France should the corruptness and development evident in Darrieussecq ‘s fresh prevail.

To reason, the usage of animate beings and specifically the transmutation of worlds into animate beings in 20th century literature aided in the representations and contemplations that writers wanted to do on society. In The Metamorphosis the reader can observe many Marxist contemplations and in Pig Tales there are the obvious women’s rightist intensions. However, in both the novels discussed non merely can we see the obvious metabolism from human to animal but besides many other transmutations that take topographic point. In Kafka ‘s Metamorphosis, the initial transmutation of Gregor into an insect is demonstrated, which is representative of his humdrum life and the opprobrious intervention by his director. However, there is besides the transmutation of his sister Grete, her first transmutation is from being sympathetic and a friend to Gregor to his enemy whereby she merely refers to her brother as ‘it ‘ . The reader can besides witness Grete ‘s transmutation into muliebrity, she wakes up to happen that her organic structure is blossomed in the aftermath of Gregor ‘s decease. Therefore one can reason that Grete ‘s altering behavior and feelings towards her brother coupled with her physical passage parallel Gregor ‘s transmutation. Although as Gregor deteriorates Grete seems to boom. Similarly, in Pig Tales, we can see the female supporters transmutation from a adult females to a hog which shows intensions of the corrupt society in which she lives and the corrupt life manner in which she participates. However, there is besides the transmutation of this adult females into a physical being who thinks and understands, there and the transmutation of society which becomes more and more corrupt, therefore holding a negative consequence on the storyteller. The usage of animate beings helps in representations as readers will already hold a preset opinion of that animate being and therefore they are symbolic, nevertheless, both the writers discussed are trying to interrupt down these opinions. Kafka uses an insect which is something that many people dislike and fear nevertheless, throughout the book although the other characters are disgusted by Gregor the reader is encouraged to sympathize with him. Similarly in Pig Tales, the storyteller transforms into a hog which has intensions of being gross outing and barbarian nevertheless, this is more a contemplation of the society and once more the reader is encouraged to sympathize with the storyteller.

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