Irony And Symbols The White Mans Burden English Literature Essay Free Essay
I aim to measure the usage of sarcasm and symbol in the verse form “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” and the “ Real White Man ‘s Burden ” to see how effectual both authors were in utilizing these elements to convey significances. In the instance of Kipling, I will see two points of positions. The first point of position is that Kipling was an imperialist who supports the return over of other authoritiess to demo high quality. The 2nd point of position is that Kipling was an imperialist who supports the return over of other authoritiess as an act of humanity to convey civilisation to the barbarian and, that he warns of the hazards of demoing high quality as oppose to conveying true release. In the instance of Crosby, since he presents a individual position point, I will measure his effectivity of utilizing sarcasm and symbolism in parodying the work of Kipling. Efficaciously used, sarcasm and symbol could convey a message with more than one significance as demonstrated in Rudyard Kipling ‘s verse form “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” or, they could convey a individual message demonstrated in Ernest H. Crosby ‘s verse form “ The Real White Man ‘s Burden ” . In the concluding analysis, I submit that the effectual usage of the elements of poesy, in this instance, sarcasm and symbol, are critical to the right reading and apprehension of the significance of both verse forms.
In order to set up a all-around apprehension of the footing for the two readings of Kipling ‘s work and the individual reading of the work of Crosby, I submit definitions for the footings ‘imperialism ‘ , ‘irony ‘ , and ‘symbol ‘ . These definitions will besides function to demo whether or non there was effectivity in the usage of the elements of poesy, in both verse forms. As defined by Dictionary.Com:
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Imperialism is “ the policy of widening the regulation or authorization of an imperium or state over foreign states, or of geting and keeping settlements and dependences. Irony is the disagreement between what is said, done, expected or intended, and what is meant, what happens, and what others understand. Satirical sarcasm is the exposure of the frailties or follies of an person, a group, an establishment, an thought, a society, normally with a position to rectify the folly. Symbol is anything that stands for something else ” . ( Dictionary.Com )
Having set uping the definitions, I will now analyse the usage of sarcasm and symbols in Ruyard Kipling ‘s verse form. While Kipling utilizations both sarcasm and symbols, his usage of sarcasm is greater. Kipling ‘s expertly uses sarcasm to convey about the intended terminal consequence of two opposing positions as to whether imperialism is for ‘human good ‘ or ‘elitist addition ‘ .
In the first position point, Kipling uses the verse form “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” to promote America to take over the Phillipines imperialistically or, for elitist addition. Kipling writes:
Take up the White adult male ‘s load / Send forth the best ye strain / Go bind your boies in expatriate / To function your prisoners ‘ demand ; ( 1-4 )
The first observation of the verse form is Kipling ‘s determination to name the verse form “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” . Undoubtedly, the usage of the phrase ‘White Man ‘ is the buoy uping rod that sparks the position that Kipling ‘s place was that of an imperialist holding at its nucleus the dogmas of Social Darwinism. Harmonizing to Kretchner, the construct of Social Darwinism purports that “ natural order obligates powerful, civilised states to allow the limited resources of the weak. ” ( Kretchmar ) Hence, Kipling ‘s goad of America to help the Phillipines to make civilisation may be interpreted as him back uping the imperialistic motion.
Even further, Kipling ‘s encouragement that the imperium should ‘send forth the best ye strain ‘ has really strong racial intensions. During that clip in history, inkinesss were non considered as peers to Whites in America. The unequal intervention of inkinesss was so prevailing in America ‘s economic, political, and societal systems that James Weldon Johnson, writes “ Lift Every Voice and Sing ” besides known as the “ Black National Anthem ” , to promote black people to sing and process until triumph is won. This call for equality continues in 1968, with Martin Luther King still merely holding a dream of equality. Though, in 2008, Barrack Obama becomes the first black President, there still remains the call for true equality.
In add-on to the charges to “ Take up White Man ‘s load / Send forth the best ye strain ” ( 1-2 ) , Kipling ‘s usage of phrases such as “ To veil the menace of panic / And look into the show of pride. ” ( 11-12 ) asserts that the Empire must make what is necessary to extinguish opposition and to repress rebellions against Imperialism. Not merely should the Empire silence the voices of the prisoners, but she must besides restrict or take any marks of pride that they might rally.
Further, Kipling ‘s word pictures of the people as “ On fluttered common people and wild / New caught- sullen peoples, / Half-devil and half-child. ” ( 6-8 ) may be easy construed as connatively condescending. Kipling seems to connote that the imperium must be prepared to reenforce her stance “ By unfastened address and simple / A hundred times make field ” ( 13-14 ) . Kipling ‘s differentiation of the imperium seem to be lofty in its tone. By get marrieding the symbols of the prisoners as being inferior people to the santimonious duty of the Empire to convey civility to the barbarian, one can reason that Kipling supports that the Empire is superior and hence has the duty to convey civility to the barbarian.
Ironically, the same organic structure of work that interpretively champions the Empire as being superior to the prisoners, implores the imperium to be just and complete in its release of the prisoners. The 2nd point of position to the work of Kipling in the “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” is 4that he advocates for the just intervention of the prisoners. Kipling ‘s goad of the imperium to emancipate the prisoners and to take attention of their demands can be found throughout his verse form. Harmonizing to Bonamy Dobree, while talking to Canadians in 1907, Kipling said:
“ I have, I confess it now, done my best for about twenty old ages to do all work forces of
the sister states within the Empire interested in each other. Because I know that at bosom all our work forces are reasonably much alike, in that they have the same aspirations, aˆ¦and when all is said and done we have merely each other to depend upon. ” ( Dobree 80 )
Kipling demonstrates a position consistent to those who believe that true release is non oppressive. For illustration, he writes:
Take up the White Man ‘s load — / The barbarian wars of peace- / Fill full the oral cavity of Famine / And bid the illness cease ; ( 17-20 )
Further, Kipling warns the Empire that all of its actions or inactivities, all that it say or non state will assist to find how the prisoners view the Empire and its God. Here is what Kipling says:
By all ye call or susurration, / By all ye leave or do, / The silent, dark peoples / Shall weigh your Gods and you. ( 45-48 )
In add-on to how the prisoners view the Empire and its God, Kipling writes that other states and future coevalss will besides look at the intervention of the prisoners and justice the Empire. Kipling goes on to state the imperium non to observe its triumph or enjoy in the congratulations, since these Acts of the Apostless are ‘childish ‘ , but that the Empire should be more concern with how the work would be judged by the Empire ‘s equals for old ages to come.To encapsulate the position that Kipling wanted the Empire to convey civilisation without demoing high quality, his shuting poetry from the verse form is submitted. Kipling writes:
Take up the White Man ‘s load — / Have done with infantile yearss — / The lightly preferred laurel, / The easy, ungrudged congratulations. / Comes now, to seek your manhood / Through all the thankless old ages / Cold. Edged with dear-bought wisdom, / The judgement of your equals! ( 49-56 )
These words clearly indicate that Kipling promote the Empire to be honest in its traffics with the Natives.
Contrary to the school of idea that Kipling advocators civilisation with true release, is Crosby ‘s place that the Empire uses ‘blessings ‘ as a room access to travel in and ‘take away ‘ the true wealths of the people and in exchange gives them an oppressive life manner. Unlike Kipling ‘s rendition of his verse form, “ The White Man ‘s Burden ” where he shows his trust for the Empire, Crosby in his lampoon “ The Real White Man ‘s Burden ” , blatantly shows his misgiving of the Empire. Most significantly, though he employs heavy usage of sarcasm and symbols to show his opposing position of the Empire, Crosby does non dillute the individual message of his verse form.
First, Crosby ‘s rubric of the verse form is a clear index of his dissent from Kipling ‘s positions. He uses the term “ White Man ” to solidify the object of his comments, but, he goes farther by utilizing the word “ Real ” which ironically implies that there is a cover of the truth. Crosby ‘s rubric speaks strongly of his judgement against the Empire. Historically, his point of position is drawn from his experiences as a societal militant and as a black adult male life in America at the clip of the Spanish American War. Harmonizing to an essay by Andrew Hebard, Crosby ‘s place on Imperialism mirrors that of Amy Kaplan who says imperialism is “ as a web of power dealingss that changes over infinite and clip and is riddled with instability, ambiguity, and upset, instead than as a massive system of domination that the really word ’empire ‘ implies. ” ( Hebard )
Following, are observations of the blending of symbol and sarcasm used by Crosby to show his position of the Empire. Crosby believes that the motivation of the Empire is ill-willed. He besides believes that their ‘chaiotic sytems ‘ bring failure, and the Empire dangle ‘proverbial carrots ‘ in exchange for far more valuable additions. Crosby ‘s place is that the eventual result of imperialism will be societal, economical, and political subjugation.
At this clip, a elaborate expression at Crosby ‘s usage of sarcasm and symbols to picture the societal clime that prevailed in America, the clime which he opposed to being introduced to the Natives, is warranted. Crosby asserts:
Take up the White Man ‘s load ; / Send away your hardy boies, / And lade them down with whisky / And Testaments and guns. ( 1-4 )
Ironically, these lines subliminally say that the imbibing of whiskey mask the truth, since it is widely known that people who consume excessively much intoxicant are non as cognitively cognizant as they should be and, hence, non able to believe right are disposed to believe anything told to them. Further, being loaded down with whiskey causes a normally hardy individual to reel, and even fall. More overtly though, is the fact that “ Testament ” represents truth and wholesomeness, and “ guns ” represent power and devastation. But, because the heads are altered with intoxicant, the cover of the existent motivation is easy perpetrated. There is a strong possibility that the soldiers will present the societal ailment of alcohol addiction to the indigens, and will besides assist to distribute propoganda about the ‘good ‘ of imperialisim thereby doing the indigens to go rummy and misinformed. The abililty of the indigens to believe moderately correct about their status will be diminished.
To farther back up his position of societal failure and to demo that the Empire thinks that the Natives have limited information and can be easy captured if non military, surely they can be captured through the spread of socially catching diseases. Crosby writes:
Throw in a few diseases / to distribute in tropic climates, / For there the healthy niggas / Are rather behind the times. ( 5-8 )
Crosby bolsters his place of societal subjugation by stating:
Give them burning chairs, / And prisons excessively, galore, / And if they seem
inclined to kick, / Then slop their pagan Gore. ( 21-24 )
The symbols of ‘electrocution chairs ‘ , ‘prisons ‘ , and ‘gore ‘ ironically speaks of decease both physically and mentally. Physically speech production, there is the decease of the individual whether by burning, or the spilling of the blood. Then, there is decease of holding freedom of infinite, since prisons limit motion. While subtle, based on Crosby ‘s history, the purpose to kill the dreams of the indigens, shrieks from the pages of history. Crosby knows from his experience, that if any signifier of opposition, whether through word or action, is shown, if any effort to prosecute any dreams, political orientations, or imposts that threatens the ends of the Empire is made, that the Empire would by any agencies necessary, guarantee that the chase of those dreams was deferred and dry up like “ A Raisins in the Sun ” . ( Diyanni 1870 )
In add-on to societal subjugation, Crosby purports that the Natives will be opressed economically through difficult labour every bit good as through the Empire ‘s system of revenue enhancement and debt. The position point of oppresive labour is competently projected through the usage of sarcasm. Crosby claims:
And do n’t bury the mills. / on those benighted shores / They have no cheerful Fe Millss / Nor eke departmemnt shops / They ne’er work 12 hours a twenty-four hours, / And live in unusual content. ( 9-14 )
Through his consummate usage of sarcasm, Crosby argues that the indigens, who did non work as long hours as did the Americans, were really content with what small they thought they had. However, the bigger issue for Crosby appears to be that Empire knew that the indigens were really really successful and affluent and sought to do them believe that their manner of life was unequal, and to turn them from being ‘owners of the land ‘ to ‘laborers in the land ‘ so that the Empire may be expanded. ( A perfect combination of imperialism and colonialism! ) Even more declarative of his stance against economic subjugation, Crosby decried the imposing of revenue enhancement and debt. He writes:
Take up the White Man ‘s load, / And learn the Phillipines / What involvement and revenue enhancements are / and what a mortgage means. ( 17-20 )
Again, in Crosby ‘s heads oculus, there is the sarcasm of a people who are successful in their simple but, independent manner of life who being militarily inferior are accordingly forced to go failures by their dependance on a monstrous fiscal system.
In a concluding effort to demo the false belief of the Empire, Crosby highlights the political clime that the Empire embracings. He pens:
They need our labour inquiry, excessively, / And political relations and fraud. / We ‘ve made a pretty muss at place ; / Let ‘s do a muss abroad. ( 25 -28 )
The sarcasm in these lines humorously evaluate the enterprise of the Empire to repair another ‘s job, when it can non work out its ain jobs. In a nutshell, Crosby believes that Imperialism is a absurd veiled effort to dissemble greed in sort workss by utilizing methods that are disfunctional.
In sum uping his individual message of the failure and lip service of the Empire, Crosby does three things. First he mocks what the Empire respects as a valorous mission, Next, he shows the unparrarel trade that the Empire wants, and so, he addresses the facade of the scripting of the mission that the Empire prefer to be written in the annals of history. The usage of satirical sarcasm and symbols are good armored vehicles to present these points. Crosby declares:
Take up the White Man ‘s load ; / to you who therefore win / In educating barbarian hosts / They owe a debt, so ; ( 33 -36 )
Crosby inquiries the cogency of the mission. He goes on to weigh the exchange between the Empire and the Natives. He adds:
Concessions, pensions, wages, / And priviledge and right, / with outstretched custodies you raised to bless / Grab everything in sight. ( 37 -40 ) .
In footings of sarcasm, non merely is at that place a contrast between how much is given poetries how much is taken, but, besides of what is given poetries what is taken. The indigens receive a few limited press releases like ‘agreements ‘ , ‘benefits ‘ , and ‘ payroll checks ‘ and, in exchange the Empire takes ownership of the indigens ‘ land and naturual resources. Interpretively, Crosby demostrates this dealing as a falling spring by traveling from having to owing ; which is really much an uneven trade. Finally, he attacks the lip service of utilizing the art of composing to falsify the issue and conceal the true motivation of the Empire. It is necessary to show the catalog of words Crosby uses to expose what he views as being socially, economically, and politically wrong. Crosby concludes:
Take up the White Man ‘s load, / And if your write in poetry, / Flatter your State ‘s frailties, / And strive to do them worse. / Then larn that if with pious words / you ornament each phrase, / In a universe of tilting dissemblers / This sort of concern wages. ( 41 – 48 )
Appropriately, Crosby uses satirical sarcasm to uncover the true motivation of the insincere enthusiam that Crosby believes Kipling is demoing for the Empire ‘s high ideals of pious goodness. Crosby is successful in showing the individual point of view of the Empire ‘s greed disguised as conveying civility to the barbarian.
In decision, the expert usage of sarcasm and symbol by both Kipling and Crosby turn out to be first-class conveyers of the poets ‘ messages. Kipling ‘s usage of sarcasm and symbol brillantly delivered two really contradictory places. He lauds Imperialism by recommending that it is the duty of civilised states to assist to convey civilisation to developing states. He besides decries the pride of thought to be superior and being unjust to people perceived to be less finanically fortunate, non as socially advanced, and non as politically savvy. Like Kipling, Crosby employs sarcasm and symbols to present his solo message. Crosby ‘s message is that the Empire is hypocrital in its motivation and that the effect of what they truly wanted to make was camoflagued by missions to humanity, and described as assisting to convey civilisation to the barbarian. Clearly, the poets ‘ usage of sarcasm and symbol shaped the apprehension and reading of the verse forms intended significances. The usage of Irony and Symbol was so good executed, there remains no statement as to the value of these elements in both verse forms.