Modern english literature Essay Free Essay

The intent of this class is to promote pupils to derive an consciousness of. and insight into. the development of modern English literature. Students will go acquainted with authors. poets and dramatists such as Thomas Hardy. William Somerset Maugham. Oscar Wilde. George Bernard Shaw. Virginia Woolf. George Orwell. Henry Williamson. John Betjeman. Ted Hughes. Charles Causley. Samuel Beckett. Laurie Lee. Agatha Christie and John Le Carre . Connections with socio-political factors will besides be explored. The class takes the signifier of talks. to which pupils may lend their research. Evaluation is by written unobserved scrutiny. in the signifier of short essays.

The talks form but the tip of the iceberg. supplying you with a door to your ain research and survey. You are encouraged to portion the consequences of your surveies. assisting non merely your fellow pupils. but me. We are. after all. in the same boat. even if I am at the helm. I do non so much Teach. as attempt to assist you to larn. I shall supply some illustrations of scrutiny inquiries at the terminal of this hopefully helpful usher.

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English literature is a immense field. and I can evidently merely seek to open a few Windowss for you. or at least loosen the locks. with apologies to the many superb authors who have been omitted. You will hopefully hold had a foundation. by go toing my other class. If you have non. talk to other pupils. So here we go!

We kick off with two superb playwrights and authors. Oscar Wilde ( 1854-1900 ) and George Bernard Shaw ( 1856-1950 ) . Wilde was quintessentially Irish in humor. temper. verbal art. blood. and beginning. yet. holding studied at Trinity College Dublin and so Oxford. was really ‘English’ in a cheerily louche. disdainful and upperclassish manner. In contrast. Shaw was an Anglo-Irish Protestant. morally. socially and politically witting. even being a laminitis member of the Fabian Society. He was besides self-taught. holding left school at the age of 14. Their differences are reflected in their work. although their conciseness unites them. Wilde is possibly best known for ‘Picture of Dorian Gray’ . Grey leads a life of orgy. while staying fine-looking and in good form. But his portrayal becomes progressively corrupt and horrid: it represents his psyche.

The stoping is pretty horrific. There is of class more to the book than merely that. and although it is a brilliant work. I wouldn’t urge it to striplings! In the foreword Wilde writes ; ‘There is no such thing as a moral or immoral book. Books are good written. or severely written. ’ In other words. he seems to be stating that art is for art’s interest. Another of his well-known plants is the drama. ‘The Importance of being Earnest’ . from which we have the treasure: ‘Really. if the low orders don’t set us a good illustration. what on Earth is the usage of them? ’ Shaw found the work hateful and sinister. exhibiting ’real degeneracy’ . In this connection. on the other manus. Wilde said of Shaw: ‘He hasn’t an enemy in the universe. and none of his friends like him. ’ Other witty Wilde expressions are: ‘Modern news media justifies its ain being by the greatest Darwinian rule of the endurance of the vulgarest. ’ ; ‘A cynic: a adult male who knows the monetary value of everything and the value of nil. ’ ; ‘I can defy anything except enticement. ’ ; and ‘When good Americans die. they go to Paris. ’ .

Wilde’s wild life seems to hold led to a tragically early death. non every bit early as Mozart. but still premature: he sued the male parent of a poet friend of his. Lord Alfred Douglas. for libel. for impeaching him of executing buggery with his boy ( the poet ) . Wilde lost the instance. was arrested. and sent to Reading Gaol for two old ages. for buggery. He so left for Paris. altering his name to Sebastian Melmoth. deceasing two old ages subsequently. Was he Dorian Gray? Was he a homosexual? Having read ‘De Profundis’ ( which he wrote in prison ) I can happen no forensic grounds of his acknowledging to holding really practiced pillow-biting and shirt-lifting. but so possibly he was a teaser. Well. possibly he had certain inclinations towards immature work forces. but the inquiry is whether it was right to direct him to imprison.

I leave this to your judgement. It is non an easy inquiry. since one needs to look at the morality of the Victorian Age. which some say had an component of lip service: sometimes. those who persecute people manically and morally for something. are seeking to conceal their ain inclinations. even from themselves… . At any event. holding run out of hard currency. and written ‘The Ballad of Reading Gaol’ . this former witty wordsmith par excellence said non long before he died: ‘I shall hold to decease beyond my agencies. ’ He left a married woman and two kids. for whom he had written a lovely. but somewhat awful book of narratives. How great would he be today. had he lived to Shaw’s age? He is great plenty. as it is.

Shaw. possibly slightly more mature emotionally than Wilde. and certainly a nice plenty fellow. was. like Wilde. healthily critical of people. but more as members of what we term ‘society’ . Thus. in his dramas. he criticized. inter alia. slum landlords and private physicians. In the foreword to ‘The Doctor’s Dilemma’ . he writes: ‘Thus everything is on the side of the physician. When work forces die of disease. they are said to decease from natural causes. When they recover ( and they normally do ) . the physician gets the recognition of bring arounding them. ’ His drama applies really much to today.

Shaw was besides an expert on category. If you wish to derive some penetration into category and speech pattern in England. you should red ‘Pygmalion’ . If you wish to understand something about the England-Ireland job. you can read ‘John Bull’s other Island. ’ Some memorable expressions from Shaw are: ‘We have no right to devour felicity without bring forthing it than to devour wealth without possessing it’ ; ‘He knows nil ; and he thinks he knows everything. That clearly points to a political calling. ’ ; and ‘ He who can. does. He who can non. Teachs. ’ I escape this definition. since I do non learn. but seek to assist pupils to larn. He remarks on the English were cutting ; for illustration: ‘A individual who thinks he is moral when he is merely uncomfortable. ’

Our class so rushes through John Galsworthy. Joseph Conrad ( non even British-born ) and T. S. Eliot. This extremely educated fellow is known. inter alia. for ‘Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats’ . He wrote the drama ‘Murder in the Cathedral’ . a really good theatrical version of the dastardly slaying of Archbishop Thomas a Becket. One of my favorite quotation marks of his. from ‘The Rock’ . is: ‘Where is the wisdom lost to knowledge. where is the cognition lost to information and where is the word we lost in words? ’

After a brief glance of the astonishing American Ezra Pound. who found Europe and Italy in peculiar. more to his wishing intellectually than the USA. we come to William Yeats ( 1865-1939 ) . He is the quintessential Celtic Irishman. a friend of Shaw and Wilde. and a good playwright and poet. ‘The Gaelic Twilight’ . a aggregation of traditional Irish narratives. is a good arrow to Yeats’ thought. Jumping now to Henry James ( 1843-1916 ) . an American who. unlike many. preferred to settle in London instead than Paris. we see a adult male who could pick up the apposite word with the point of his pen. in a punctilious manner. I find his manner excessively precise for my liking. the really antithesis of ‘stream of consciousness’ authorship. However. he was a competent author. ‘The Turn of the Screw’ is a good shade narrative.

Thomas Hardy ( 1840-1928 ) . a elephantine in English literature. is deserving chubby paragraph. A poet who wrote novels. he was born to a modest household ( his male parent was a stonemason ) . trained as an designer. but returned to his beloved Wessex to compose. Beautifully written. his novels can be rather pessimistic: ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’ ends with the heroine’s executing for knifing her hubby to decease. a hubby whom she was emotionally pressurised into get marrieding. although she loved another. ‘Jude the Obscure’ ends with three kids hanging dead behind a door. on apparels maulerss. His narratives frequently conveying out what he saw as the unfairness of the divorce Torahs. particularly for adult females who had married the incorrect adult male. and were so trapped in their matrimony. and how they and their lovers were so ostracized by society. His authorship was sensitive. and some of his descriptions of nature in his darling Wessex are touching.

We now look at three childrens’ authors. Lewis Carroll ( existent name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. an Oxford mathematician. non-practising Anglican deacon. and photographer. 1832-1898 ) . Kenneth Graham ( 1859-1932 ) . and Beatrix Potter ( 1866-1943 ) . Few have non heard of Carroll’s ‘Alice in Wonderland’ and ‘Through the Looking-Glass and what Alice found there’ . both of which are fascinating phantasies. about doing imagination existent. From the latter. we have the memorable quotation mark: ‘The inquiry is’ . said Alice. ‘whether you can do words intend different things. ’ The inquiry is. said Humpty Dumpty. ‘which is to be maestro. that’s all. ’

It was rumoured that he had a non entirely healthy involvement in immature misss. although there is non a jot of grounds that he of all time did anything untoward. From Alice’s fantasy universe. the Scotsman Kenneth Graham takes us to the fantasy universe of small animate beings. with ‘The Wind in the Willows’ . written to his boy. We see the day-to-day lives of the frog. the Wisconsinite. rat and mole in a typical English state puting. Beatrix Potter besides wrote short books about animate beings. exemplifying them herself. Of note are ‘The Tale of Peter Rabbit’ and the ‘Tale of Mrs. Tittlemouse. She spent most of her ulterior life in the Lake District. the most beautiful portion of England. This had a sort consequence on her authorship.

Traveling now to more societal and even sexual subjects. we come to D. H. ( David Herbert Richard ) Lawrence ( 1885-1930 ) . This adult male got through the bone to the marrow of passion. love and sex. His quintessential book is ‘Lady Chatterley’s Lover’ . a narrative of illicit love. passion and unadulterated sex between the upper-class married woman of an impotent blue blood and the game warden. Lawrence left England. and the book was published in Florence. non looking in England until 1961. following a sensational lewdness test. Lawrence wrote other books. such as ‘Women in Love’ and ‘Sons and Lovers’ . He is really perceptive. uncovering the existent. instead than the politically right and sanitized bunk of lip service. We can link this to the English people’s disfavor of being obvious. peculiarly when it comes to sex. and their embarrassment of sexual affairs. frequently expressed in petroleum gags.

Now back to the Irish: James Joyce ( 1882-1942 ) was another of those linguists who chose Paris. His most well-known work is ‘Ulyses’ . an illustration of his alleged ‘stream of consciousness’ authorship. which tries to catch one’s deepest ideas and imaginativeness on paper. a sort of interior soliloquy. As such. it is of course unstructured. ‘Ulyses’ trades with a twenty-four hours in Dublin. and a whole gaggle of characters. ‘Finnegan’s Wake’ is another illustration. and has been linked to Giambattista Vico’s ‘New Science’ . which contains a good trade about the beginnings of linguistic communication. Joyce surely pushes written linguistic communication to its bounds. In contrast. his ‘Dubliners’ . a series of short narratives about life in Dublin. is surprisingly matter-of-fact in manner. He influenced another Irishman. the dramatist Samuel Becket ( 1906-1989 ) . another linguist shacking in Paris. best known for ‘ En attender Godot’ . written originally in French. The absorbing drama ends without Godot arriving.

Let us now spare some idea for the fantastic and tragic Virginia Woolf. known in peculiar for ‘To the Lighthouse’ . ‘The Waves’ . ‘Orlando’ and ‘Mrs. Dalloway’ . As with Joyce. we see a certain sum of internal duologue. Woolf was a prima visible radiation of the ‘Bloomsbury Group’ . named after the country of London in which it met. She has besides been seen as a women’s rightist. holding written: ‘A adult female must hold money and a room of her ain if she is to compose fiction’ . But does this non besides use to work forces? It is up to you to make up one’s mind. by reading some of her work. whether or non she was a women’s rightist. She is said to hold had mental jobs. At any rate. she drowned herself in the Thames.

Back now to the work forces. Aldous Huxley ( 1894 ) is best known for ‘Brave New World’ ( 1934 ) . a peculiarly negative review of the hereafter. where Britain is a barren of human ‘robots’ and scientific genteelness ( he virtually predicted test-tube babes ) . with subordination the ideal of felicity. He developed the subject in 1959. with ‘Brave New World Revisited’ . At any rate. he is relevant today. as is the inimitable literary giant George Orwell ( 1903-50 ) . whose existent name was Eric Arthur Blair. His ‘1984’ . published in 1948. predicts a hereafter where the universe is divided into immense power blocks. and where people are run on authorities propaganda. Wherever you live. ‘Big Brother’ tickers you from a telecasting screen. and so assist you if you say anything against the authorities. or even seek to hold a loving relationship with person.

As for the Ministry of Truth. it is based on lying. ‘Animal Farm’ is an onslaught on communist dictatorship. After Eton. Blair became a colonial police officer in Burma ( he was born in Bengal ) . an experience which made him critical of the British Empire. ‘Burmese Days’ is a novel which brings out the lip service of imperium. and how societal category mattered. in a narrative of unanswered love. Orwell was besides a good short narrative author. ‘Shooting an Elephant’ brings out the relationship between swayers and ruled. while ‘A Hanging’ is horrific in its item. Orwell fought in the Spanish civil war. and wrote a really perceptive – if on occasion academic – book about the inside informations of the struggle. He besides spent several months populating as a insouciant worker in London and Paris. working chiefly as a dish washer. He so produced a extremely entertaining book. ‘Down and out in London and Paris’ . Here is an illustration of his composing. from ‘England. your England’ : ‘As I write. extremely civilized human existences are winging overhead. seeking to kill me.

They do non experience any hostility against me as an person. nor I against them. They are merely “doing their duty” . as the expression goes. Most of them. I have no uncertainty. are kindhearted observant work forces who would ne’er woolgather of perpetrating slaying in private life. ’ Like several authors. Orwell was besides a journalist. We can non stop without adverting his essay ‘Politics and the English Language’ . a extremely entertaining but effectual lambasting of the influence of political political orientation on the English linguistic communication. and really relevant today. with the eroding of clear English through computing machine linguistic communication. sloppy instruction and political rightness.

From Orwell. we turn now to two children’s authors. although their books are besides appropriate for grownups. The South African J. R. Tolkien ( 1892-1973 ) . Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. is most good known for ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’ . ‘The Hobbit’ and ‘Lord of the Rings’ . escapade narratives laden with phantasy and pulling on Tolkien’s cognition of the Celts. If I compare Tolkien to Rowling’s ‘Harry Potter’ . the latter catapults itself out of being. Roald Dahl ( 1916-1990 ) is besides a fantastic author. chiefly but non entirely for kids. Born in Wales of Norse parents. his girl was one time one of the girlfriends of a cousin of mine. He wrote a series of short narratives. ‘Tales of the Unexpected’ . so gripping that they were serialised on telecasting. Each narrative ends with a turn. Although they are for grownups and older kids. ‘Charlie and the Chocolate Factory’ is decidedly for immature people. ‘My Uncle Oswald’ is besides an amusive book.

So we come to a mammoth of English literature. William Somerset Maugham ( 1874-1965 ) . Born in Paris. where his male parent was a legal advisor. siss female parent died when he was eight old ages of age. and his male parent two old ages subsequently. He was sent to populate with an uncle. the Vicar of Whitstable. seemingly a cold character. and so attended King’s School. Canterbury. left early. and studied literature. doctrine and German at Heidelberg. stoping up analyzing medical specialty at St. Thomas’ Hospital in Lambeth. London. where he qualified as a physician. His 2nd book. ‘Lisa of Lambeth’ ( 1897 ) . a narrative about propertyless criminal conversation. sold so good that Maugham became a full-time author. traveling to the South of France in 1928. around the clip of his divorce ( it is said that he had instead particular relationships with assorted males ) . We can non of class reference all his books ( he even wrote some popular dramas ) . but of note are: ‘Of Human Bondage’ . autobiographical in nature. ‘Ashenden’ . about a secret agent. and four volumes of really entertaining short narratives. of which my front-runner is ‘Salvatore’ .

Maugham was surely a reasonably curious character. and was good at annoying people. in peculiarly those whom he about libeled in some of his books. For even if he did non advert existent names. it was sometimes reasonably obvious whom he meant. The undermentioned quotation mark reveals some of Maugham’s sometimes bitter-sweet powers of depicting people: ‘When she reddened. her pastelike tegument acquired a oddly mottled expression. like strawberries and pick gone bad. ’

Wending our manner towards the authors of thrillers. I shall touch on merely four. although there is a whole bevy of them. Graham Greene ( 1904-91 ) . who converted to Rome in 1926. was educated at Oxford. and worked for British Intelligence for a piece. His thrillers are gripping. and dig deep into morality. One of his best thrillers. the ‘Human Factor’ . is based on espionage. as is ‘Our Man In Havanna’ . Other superb books are books are ‘The End of the Affair’ . ‘The Honorary Consul’ and ‘Ministry of Fear’ . John Le Carre ( 1931- ) . whose existent name is David Cornwell. is still traveling strong. After Oxford. he taught at Eton for two old ages. and so worked for MI5 ( which handles. along with the Police’s Special Branch. internal security. but frequently has rows with MI6 about duty for Northern Ireland. because of the connections with the Republic of Ireland ) .

His espionage thriller ‘The Spy who came in from the Cold’ . won him worldwide celebrity. and was made into a really good movie. It brought out the world of intelligence work. the plodding and the common intuitions that abound in the incestuous universe of institutionalized spying. Some of his other books are ‘Smiley’s Circus’ . ‘A Small town in Germany’ . ‘A Perfect Spy’ and ‘The Constant Gardener’ which. despite the alleged terminal of the Cold War. is every bit thrilling as of all time. oppugning the morality of large concern. To acquire a sense of his manner. here is the beginning of ‘A Small Town in Germany’ : ‘Ten proceedingss to midnight: a pious Friday in May and a all right river mist lying in the market square. Bonn was a Balkan metropolis. stained and secret [ … ] . ’

In apposition. Ian Fleming ( 1908-1964 ) . writer of the highly well-known Bond novels. accents. possibly a touch excessively much. the more glamourous facets of the occupation. but nevertheless remains plausible. He was in British Naval Intelligence for a piece. Then we should advert Len Deighton ( 1929- ) . who may hold caught the composing bug when making his National Service as a lensman attached to the Particular Investigation Branch. ‘The Ipcress File’ made him an instant success. and was made into a good movie. with Michael Caine as the hero. Some of his other books are ‘Horse under Water’ . ‘Bomber’ and ‘Berlin Game’ ( portion of a series ) .

We can non go forth these fellows without reference of a lady author. who. although non an espionage expert. is one of the best offense novelists: Agatha Christie ( 1890-1978 ) . wrote 60 six detective novels. utilizing her experience as a infirmary dispenser in the Great War to larn a good trade about toxicants. Although her writing manner is surprisingly simple. she manages to maintain the reader hooked by corrupting him. Who has non heard of Mrs. Marples and Hercule Poirot? ‘The Murder of Roger Ackroyd’ . ‘Murder on the Orient Express’ . ‘Ten Small Niggers’ and ‘The Mousetrap’ are merely a few of her plants. P. D. James was besides an highly good offense author.

Before now traveling to a little choice of British poets and their poesy. we shall look at Henry Williamson. since he connects good to our first poet. Ted Hughes. who knew him. and spoke at his funeral. Williamson was a author. journalist and husbandman. who was in love with nature. He fought in the Great War. going disgusted with the greed and dogmatism that had caused it. and determined that Britain and Germany should ne’er travel to war once more. Because he had supported Oswald Mosley and his Fascists. and had admired Hitler before the following universe war. a few petty persons tried to damage his repute. It is silly that the ‘Norton Anthology of English Literature’ does non include him. while including many lesser authors. After all. Oscar Wilde believed that art is for art’s interest. and should non be polluted by political relations.

Writers should be able to show their positions without being sent to Coventry. The illustriousness of his books. nevertheless. saw him through. His chef-d’oeuvre is ‘Tarka the Otter’ . basically about an otter being hunted to decease. The reader really becomes an otter. Williamson spent many months analyzing and watching otters before and while he wrote the book. So good was it. that Walt Disney twice approached him for the movie rights. and was roundly rejected. It was finally made into a proper movie. and Williamson died on the same twenty-four hours that the cinematography of a deceasing Tarka was taking topographic point. Uncanny or simply coinciding? ‘Salar the Salmon’ is another chef-d’oeuvre. as is his series of books on the life of Willie Maddison. The ‘Beautiful Years’ and ‘Dandelion Days’ . partially autobiographical. depict attractively a male child turning into adolescence and maturity.

And so to our poetic interlude: Laurie Lee was the quintessential Englishman:

‘Far-fetched with narratives of other universes and ways.
My skin well-oiled with vinos of the Levant.
I set my face into a filial smiling
To recognize the picket. domestic buss of Kent.
[ … ]The hedges choke with roses fat as pick. ’ ( from ‘Home from Abroad’ ) .

John Betjeman ( a poet laureate ) . and lover of old England. loved Victoriana. the odor of old churches and moldy books. But he is besides perceptive about people: the following are infusions about an English lady at a service in Westminster Abbey. during the universe war:

‘Gracious Lord. oh bomb the Germans.
Spare their adult females for Thy Sake.
And if that is non excessively easy
We will excuse Thy error.
But gracious Lord. what’er shall be.
Don’t let anyone bomb me.

Keep our Empire undismembered
Guide our forces by Thy manus.
Gallant inkinesss from far Jamaica.
Honduras and Togoland ;
Protect them Lord in all their battles.
And. even more. protect the Whites.

[ … ]

Now I feel a small better.
What a dainty to hear thy word.
Where the castanetss of taking solons.
Have so frequently been interr’d.
And now. beloved Lord. I can non wait
Because I have a tiffin day of the month. ’ ( from ‘In Westminster Abbey’ ) .

Unlike Betjeman. Charles Causley tends to look more at single people and events. and is non as nostalgic. As respects his positions on poesy. he writes in his debut to a choice of his verse forms: ‘What a verse form “means” is something that the author every bit good as the reader each must make up one’s mind entirely. Merely one thing is certain: that. unlike arithmetic. the right replies may all be right. yet all be different. ’ His imagination clasps you hard:

‘Bank vacation. a sky of guns. the river
Spilling black Ag on the degree step.
A war-memorial that aims for of all time
Its stopped. rock barrel on the tremendous air. ’ ( from ‘At Grantchester’ )


‘Oh female parent my oral cavity is full of stars
As cartridges in the tray
My blood is a twin-branched vermilion tree
And it runs all runs off. ’ ( From ‘Song of the Dying Gunner A. A. 1’ ) .


‘Charlotte she was soft
But they found her in the inundation
Her Sunday beads among the reeds
Beaming with her blood. ’ ( from ‘The Ballad of Charlotte Dymond’ ) .

From hapless Charlotte Dymond. we move to Clifford Dyment’s ‘Fox’ . which begins:

‘Exploiter of the shadows
He moved among the fencings.
A strip of action gyrating
Around his farmyard illusions. ’

And so we come to another mammoth. a poet laureate into the deal. Ted Hughes. who ( see above ) admired Henry Williamson. Cambridge-educated Yorkshireman Hughes was fascinated by the natural force of nature – in peculiar as respects the behavior of animate beings – . in power and in decease:

‘I sit in the top of the wood. my eyes closed.
Inaction. no falsifying dream
Between my aquiline caput and aquiline pess:
Or in a sleep rehearse perfect putting to deaths and eat. ’ ( from ‘Hawk Roosting’ ) .


‘Terrifying are the attent sleek thrushes on the lawn.
More coiled steel than populating – a poised
Dark lifelessly oculus. those delicate legs
Triggered to stirrings beyond sense – with a start.
a bounciness. a stab Overtake the blink of an eye and drag out some wrestling thing.
No faineant cunctations and no oscitance stares.
No suspiration or head-scrathings. Nothing but bounciness
and pang And a predatory second. ’ ( from ‘Thrushes’ ) .


‘The hog lay on a barrow dead.
It weighed. they said. every bit much as three work forces.
Its eyes closed. tap white ciliums.
Its trotters stuck directly out. ’ ( ‘View of a Pig’ ) .

Hughes. who wonderfully described November as ‘the month of the drowned dog’ . had a slightly intense yet sad relationship with his married woman. the American poetess. Silvia Plath. who committed self-destruction. allegedly because of Hughes relationship ( s? ) with another adult female or more. Commiseration about the kids: and Sylvia’s boy committed suicide 40 six old ages after his female parent did. Nature. power and decease.

Our last two verse forms are by me. and I feel constrained to state you that if a verse form is to be unadulterated. and above the bonds of convention and/or opportunism. whether good or bad. it must come straight from the bosom. The lone inquiry is how pure is your bosom.


Dark shadow lies beneath. no motion ;
Not even a vellication of the delicate tail
While it seeks its nutrient.
More than hidden. it is portion of the river.
It darts. excessively speedy for oculus to follow.
You see it in its new place.
The upward pang. the tweaking bite.
The munching seconds. unseeable to you.
You see merely distributing ripplings.
Then the aureate flicker. the creamy belly.
In the eventide Sun.
You cast. the sudden jerk dazes you.
Despite your outlook.
It pulls and judders at your psyche ;
Such beauty. as you take him out.
Designed for runing fly.
To feed its perfect musculuss.
Body sculpted to populating flawlessness ;
Colours glitter. yet every bit deep as the river.
The Pomaderris apetala oculus stares you out
Long after the decease.
It hunts your psyche.
Thank God for reproduction. ’



To your beauty-hunting organic structure.
Oh allow some clip to feeling.

To your love-thirsting bosom.
Oh allow some clip to harmony.

To your self-serving psyche.
Please harmonize some clip to believe.

To your success-hungry self-importance.
Just allow some clip to others.

To your power-seeking eyes.
Oh allow some clip to self-contemplation.

To your adventure-seeking pess.
Oh allow some clip to knowledge.

To your God-seeking psyche.
Please give some clip to prayer.

Let us now talk rapidly about John Fowles. who loved Greece. Indeed. one of his most celebrated novels. ‘The Magus’ . is set on the island of Spetse. a narrative of machination. passion. compulsion and sex. with an orchestrator. ‘Conchis’ . ‘The Collector’ is besides a instead awful small narrative of a miss trapped by an obsessional aggregator. stoping meanly.

Returning to America. John Steinbeck is of considerable note for his novels about life during the Great Depression. in peculiar ‘Of Mice and Men’ and ‘The Grapes of Wrath’ .

Let us complete. as we began. with a twosome of dramatists. Harold Pinter. celebrated for his adept repartee. wrote. inter alia. ‘The Birthday Party’ and ‘The Caretaker’ . He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2005. and. although part-Jewish. led a group of Jews who campaigned for justness for the Palestinians. abashing overzealous Israeli Zionists. To obtain a spirit of his political positions. you can look at his ‘A New universe Order’ . published in 1991. He was awarded an honorary chair by the University of Thessaloniki.

Another well-known dramatist is Tom Stoppard. besides a maestro of repartee. who escaped from Czechoslovakia in 1938. at the age of one. He wrote. inter alia. ‘Arcadia’ . He besides wrote and spoke on political affairs.

Now we truly must halt. and travel on to a few typical scrutiny inquiries:

‘Compare George Bernard Shaw’s and Oscar Wilde’s works. ’

‘Do you think that Maugham was more inventive in his authorship than Orwell? ’

‘It is said that Ted Hughes was obsessed with nature. power and decease. What do you believe? ’

‘Compare the plants of Agatha Christie to those of John Le Carre . ’

It goes without stating. about. that simply larning the above few pages. parrot-fashion. will non be sufficient to go through the scrutiny: they represent merely a skeletal lineation. Besides. you need to be compendious. No lingual binge-eating syndrome or irrelevant sentences. please! I shall instantly see through any scrutiny paper that appears to trust merely on this brief usher. Most Markss will be awarded for grounds of originality and thought. every bit good as of cognition.

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