Robinson Crusoe vs Pride and Prejudice Essay Free Essay
Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) is one of the most of import novels of the 18th century. and of the English literature. It is surely the first novel in the sense that it is the first fictional narration in which the ordinary person’s activities are the Centre of uninterrupted literary attending. Before that. in the early 18th century. writers like Pope. Swift. Addison and Steele looked back to the Rome of Caesar Augustus ( 27 BC – 14 AD ) as a aureate age. That period is called the Augustan age. Literature was really different since it focused on mythology and heroic poem heroes.
However. to what extent can Robinson Crusoe be called the “first novel” and how is it different from all that have been done so far? Besides. what are the developments in the novel genre taking to Victorian novels. like Pride and Prejudice published about one hundred old ages subsequently ( 1813 ) in footings of manner. subjects and concerns? Augustan authors. before Daniel Defoe. were really protective of the position quo and their novels were philosophical and spiritual. based on a myth of the ageless fittingness of things. By contrast. Defoe stood for radical alteration. economic individuality. societal mobility. trade. and freedom of consciousness.
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For Swift. Defoe was “the chap that was pilloried. I have forgotten his name. ” He represented at one time a societal literary and rational challenge to the Augustan universe. and the Augustans reacted to him consequently. In Robinson Crusoe. Defoe trades with major points of Western civilization like trade. mercantile capitalist economy since at that clip. a great effort was made to rule other continents. dispersed civilization. beliefs. like for illustration. when Robinson tries to change over Friday into Christianity. as he considers him a barbarian. In the 18th century. British economically depended on slave trade. which was abolished on the early 1800s.
Therefore. Daniel Defoe was familiar with this practise. even though he did non actively knock it. There is accordingly no surprise that. Robinson treats Friday as his slave. However. Crusoe is able to recognize Friday’s humanity. though he does non see his bondage as a contradiction. Robinson Crusoe was written in a context of a European colonialism good established around the Earth. Following. material wealth is a mark of prestigiousness and power in Robinson’s head. For case. he frequently lists his properties. like the sum of land ploughed. his commissariats. and he shops the coins found on assorted wrecks.
On top of that. he calls his “base. ” his “castle” and finally considers himself as a “King. ” Therefore. stuff power is an of import component every bit good as faith and religion in the novel. Robinson rejects his father’s advice and spiritual instructions at the beginning of the novel. in order to travel and have some escapade and wealth. Although. his shipwreck can be considered as a moral penalty and his noncompliance as a wickedness. the supporter did roll up wealth and did last at the terminal of the novel.
Therefore. the fact that he was punished can be argued and discussed. Robinson’s sentiment about faith is really clear. He is a Puritan and attempts to distribute his strong beliefs on the island to change over into Christianity Friday. who is really rational. The hero merely refuses Friday’s ain beliefs. believing that his faith is the best 1. This idea may be due to the fact that British people believed that they had a right and a responsibility to convey their cognition. civilization and faith.
By contrast. Pride and Prejudice was written a century subsequently. and hence. the concerns were no longer the same. In Jane Austen’s novel. there is a complete displacement to mundane life and society’s concerns. The author reveals the ethical footing of mundane life. and shows how “the ordinary happenings of the universe. no less than great actions. were centred on moral conventions. moral opinion and moral choice” so that. populating in such a society required a invariable will and intellect to command the ego and understand others.
Differently from Daniel Defoe. her chief concern is her emotional Centre. non Robinson’s economic escapade. The displacements of involvements are chiefly caused by a alteration in society and a transmutation in people’s heads. In Austen’s times. the most of import thing is non the person in itself but far more. the single life in a society strongly hierarchal. and based on a strong and profoundly frozen system of category.
That difference can be pointed by the two gaps of Pride and Prejudice on the one manus. and Robinson Crusoe on the other manus. It is a truth universally acknowledged. that a individual adult male in ownership of a good luck. must be in privation of a married woman. However small known the feelings or positions of such a adult male may be on his first come ining a vicinity. this truth is so good fixed in the heads of the environing households. that he is considered as the rightful belongings of some one or other of their girls. [ … ] ” “I was born in the twelvemonth 1632. in the metropolis of York. of a good household. though non of that state. my male parent being a alien of Bremen who ettled foremost at Hull. [ … ] ” The pick of words clearly shows that the two books are about to undertake different positions: the person in Robinson Crusoe and the relation of the person and the society in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.
To transport on with Pride and Prejudice. matrimony and money were two perennial subjects in Victorian people’s heads. as shown with Mrs Bennet. who in the really first chapter claims. “the concern of her life was to acquire her girls married. In Austen’s secret plan. the Bennet girls are in existent danger if they do non get married and happen a house since the bootlicking Mr Collins will inherit the house after Mr Bennet’s decease. Therefore. matrimony is the lone issue for the Bennet girls. Money is seen as a possible advancement in the Victorian society. likewise in Robinson Crusoe where trade may be perceived as a benefit for a society in enlargement. However. we have merely seen that both novels trade with the inquiry of single. Robinson Crusoe is clearly based on the person and his achievement.
The supporter is stranded on an island. and has to last and populate decently wholly on his ain resources. This emphasis on person is in maintaining with humanitarianism. an of import characteristic in the early 18th century. “There exists an changeless human kernel. normally known as ‘human nature’ which is historically invariable. and our apprehension of it embodied in Western literature. ” Human nature is held to treat great potency for self-respect and mobility. In Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. merely a few characters truly appear in the secret plan.
We can cite Robinson Crusoe. Friday. the English captain. the Portuguese Captain who rescued Crusoe when he escaped from Sallee. the Widow… There are evidently less characters than in Pride and Prejudice. Defoe besides highlights individuals’ emotions such as fright. choler. desperation. hope and alleviation. However. Robinson merely values Friday as a devotedly and dependable retainer. and does non see him a friend. There is no room for love. since there are no female characters involved in the secret plan. We are portrayed a masculine universe where adult females have nil to make in it.
On the contrary. Austen was interested in individual’s jobs and particularly in women’s concerns illustrated by interactions with others and chiefly through the two supporters: Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy Fitzwilliam. As the rubric of the fresh suggests. the machination is structured around both constructs of “pride” and “prejudice. ” Elizabeth has to get the better of her bias against Darcy to truly appreciate his ain personality and clearly see through him. beyond visual aspects and others’ sentiments like her mother’s. On the other manus. Darcy has to bury Elizabeth’s societal rank and the fact that she has no “connection” in order to truly value her.
In that manner. these two characters are like “round” characters since they evolve and advancement acquisition by their defects and by recognizing they were incorrect. Besides. Jane Austen does non waver to knock the society and the system of category in which she lives. mocking at Mr Collins and his manner he addresses people. He uses a really convoluted address. wholly inappropriate to the state of affairs. like for illustration his proposal to Elisabeth: “My grounds for get marrieding are. first. that I think it a right thing for every reverend in easy fortunes ( like myself ) to se the illustration of marriage in his parish.
Second. that I am convinced it will add really greatly to my felicity ; and thirdly – which possibly I ought to hold mentioned earlier. that it is the peculiar advice and recommendation of the really baronial lady whom I have the honor of naming patronne. [ … ] ” In that proposal. Mr Collins has no feeling at all towards Elisabeth. and his address is much more deliberate we could anticipate. It is like a mathematical presentation stressed by the manner because. as Jane Austen says in chapter 15. “Mr Collins was non a reasonable adult male. and the lack of nature had been but small assisted by instruction or society.
Therefore. manner is important in a novel to visualize characters’ behaviors. However. both books’ authorship is radically different. First. sing the storyteller point of position. Robinson Crusoe is written in the first individual remarkable. As a effect. we invariably have Robinson’s point of position and sentiment about the events go oning. We have to inquire whether the supporter. through which the narrative is described. may be dependable or non. and if we can swear him. If we had Friday’s point of position alternatively. it is clear that we would hold a complete different sentiment about Robinson.
By contrast. in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. an all-knowing storyteller cognizing perfectly everything tells the narrative. Consequently. the author can elicit some dramatic sarcasm making spreads between what the reader knows and what the characters know. like for illustration. the fact that we know that Darcy loves in secret Elisabeth. whereas the diacetylmorphine does non cognize that. Jane Austen controls the secret plan and sometimes intervenes to oppugn the reader. and knock some controversial points.
The best illustration is the first sentence opening the novel which remains celebrated: “it is a truth universally acknowledged. that a individual adult male in ownership of a good luck. must be in privation of a married woman. ” ( p. 1 ) She clearly criticises the manner that society plants scintillating off some sarcasm in that sentence. because society works the other manner unit of ammunition. Nevertheless. in a individual sentence. she already tackles with issues like money and matrimony. Second. the 3rd individual narrative voice enables Jane Austen to set into practise her showing-telling technique.
She describes the characters ( stating ) by. merely allowing them talk. their personality being rendered by their manner of speech production ( demoing ) . The most relevant illustration is Mrs Bennet’s behavior. She is described as a complete “foolish” individual. gossipmongering and merely interested in get marrieding her girls. For case on the first page. Mr Bennet has a talk with his married woman: “My dear Mr. Bennet. ” said his lady to him one twenty-four hours. “have you heard that Netherfield Park is let at last? ” Mr. Bennet replied that he had non. But it is. ” returned she ; “for Mrs. Long has merely been here. and she told me all about it. ” Mr. Bennet made no reply. “Do non you want to cognize who has taken it? ” cried his married woman impatiently. “You want to state me. and I have no expostulation to hearing it. ” This was invitation plenty. “Why. my beloved. you must cognize. Mrs. Long says that Nether field is taken by a immature adult male of big luck from the North of England ; that he came down on Monday in a daybed and four to see the topographic point. and was so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr.
Morris instantly ; that he is to take ownership before Michaelmas. and some of his retainers are to be in the house by the terminal of following hebdomad. ” Furthermore. “for rapid effects and elusive displacements of accent. Austen’s linguistic communication half assumes the manner of idea and look of her characters. so that their consciousness are seen. filtered through the cardinal auctorial intelligence. and more can be understood from the auctorial tone-of-voice than from consecutive forward study. Furthermore. utilizing the 3rd individual voice. Jane Austen keeps us much in the dark about Darcy’s character so that during our first reading. we are besides misled by his behaviour. as Elizabeth is herself. forcing us to believe that he is really proud and haughty. Austen does that by “screening most of our feelings through Elizabeth in order to convey off the main dramatic consequence of the narrative. ” overpowering surprise at his first proposal. Last but non least. there was a distinct development between the two novels in the building of the secret plan itself.
Pride and Prejudice’s narrative is far more complicated. since the events are intermingled and are caused by others or are the effects taking to other turbulences. However. at the terminal. everything is solved. and every secret plan has an reply: Elizabeth get marrieding Darcy. Lydia get marrieding Mr Bingley. and Charlotte Lucas populating with Mr Collins without loving him. Contrasting this causality. we can state that Robinson Crusoe looks like an epistolatory narrative. During a twosome of pages. Robinson even carries on stating his escapades through a diary. in the chapter “The Journal. That technique could hold been influenced by the fact that Daniel Defoe was besides a journalist. Concisely. Defoe’s secret plan is simpler with merely one chief secret plan eliciting the reader’s imaginativeness more than possible combustion issues. To reason. Robinson Crusoe is a novel in itself. since it includes all the features: characters. secret plan. and narrative voice. However. the concerns and the subjects in 1719 were non the same as in 1813 because Daniel Defoe and Jane Austen did non populate in the same universe and society at all.
On the other manus. Austen perfected the techniques of dramatic-presentation. socially analyzed linguistic communication. which were necessary to undertake the quandary of single moral pick and the relation between persons and society in the businessperson universe. Later. in 1871. George Eliot’s Middlemarch appeared. This fresh concerns issues of rank. repute and matrimony and it observes in a realistic manner the characters. and the full community from aristocracy to shopkeepers. Realism was a cardinal construct. really of import since Austen’s times. and this was a title which will travel down in literature’s history.