The Crucial Features Of Heart Of Darkness English Literature Essay Free Essay

Topographic point and supplanting are ever featured in post-colonial Hagiographas, whether it ‘s Derek Walcott ‘s verse form ‘A far call from Africa ‘ or powerful novels for illustration ‘Heart of Darkness ‘ . This characteristic opens up a broader construct where post-colonial crisis of individualism comes into world. When a novel carries elements of topographic point and supplanting, the subject of disaffection is ever reflected, this originates from a sense of supplanting. The sense of supplanting may hold derived from migration, captivity or even alterity which may be put frontward by similarities or differences between different civilizations. This construct was to a great extent reflected in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad and Season of Migration to the North by Tayeb Salih. Both authors seem to be stating a narrative about colonization with their ain reading of different experiences. Salih ‘s fresh revolves around the narrative of superb Mustafa Sa’eed, the novel indicates journey to the ‘heart of visible radiation ‘ . Whereas, Conrad ‘s novel is a complete reversal to Kurtz ‘s journey to Congo and connotes a journey to ‘heart of darkness ‘ . Both novels focal point on geographical locations which have in some manner shaped the persons in the novel and perceived their emotions such of abhoring and desperation. It seems that both authors are seeking for a true individuality and avoiding the struggles of other civilizations. Their hunt is in the terminal a pointless and clip blowing experience ; nevertheless their experience of colonialism was all about corruptness and greed. The construct of supplanting is discovered by us ( the readers ) when Conrad instigated racism towards the Africans which was rather crystalline. In contrast, Salih courageously expressed himself being woman hater, which is instead controversial in today ‘s society-since work forces and adult females come across as being equal.

The representation of the two continents in these novels is displayed in diverse ways to each other. In Conrad ‘s novel, the storyteller expresses his sentiment of River Thames being “ plaintive somberness, dwelling motionless ” . His description of England “ but darkness was here yesterday ” clearly reflects Conrad ‘s position as to how Romans one time colonised England. The description gives an feeling of England being wild: “ Here and at that place a military cantonment lost in a wilderness like a acerate leaf in a package of hay-cold, fog, storms, disease, expatriate and death- decease malingering in the air, in the H2O, in the shrub. ” The metaphor is smartly used here for cantonments being lost and it ‘s impossible to happen them because of fog and expatriate. Here we discover Conrad ‘s first description of supplanting from the grounds ( as stated above ) . When Romans foremost arrived, England was seen as a supplanting for people populating at that place.

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In contrast Tayeb Salih ‘s storyteller describes Europe ( where he surveies ) therefore: “ I had lost for a clip in a land ‘whose fishes dice of the cold ‘ . ” This clearly evokes a feeling of supplanting he felt when he was in Europe-the feeling and emotions he got when he came back are complete reversal “ and it was an extraordinary minute ” of experiencing for Europe. Later in the novel we come across the storyteller ‘s feeling of disaffection which evoked from supplanting “ the test into a struggle between two universes, a battle of which I was one of the victims. ” Here the storyteller seems to be tied up between two universes and seeking to propose that where he studied ( Europe ) is a different universe to where he was born ; his small town. However, when he returns to his small town, he seems to retrieve Europe, one possible ground could be he becomes attached to that universe. This is rather apparent in the fresh “ I am from here- is non this world plenty? … . I used to prize within me the image of this small small town, seeing it wherever I went with the oculus of my imaginativeness. ” Earlier in the novel his description of the small town has drastically changed, because of the experiences that he came across in the small town “ Over there is like here, neither better nor worse ” the storyteller seems to come to a decision that universe is the same there ‘s no difference Europe is the same as his small town.

The construct of European being the dominant and powerful one is established in Edward Said ‘s Orientalism ( Is knowledge based thought in peculiar knowledgeknowlege and ideasisead of Asiatic civilizations andnad linguistic communications. ) In his book Said presents an statement argue of East being generated by western/European bookmans who represent those civilizations from a colonial point of position. Salih gives an feeling of Africa is what Europeans make it. Which I think is a valid feeling and it ‘s clearly apparent in Conrad ‘s novel: “ They [ the slaves ] were deceasing easy – it was really clear. They were non enemies, they were non felons, they were nil earthly now… inefficient, and were so allowed to creep off and rest. These moribund forms “ – Marlow ‘s description of African work forces and they are non treated humanely, therefore Marlow describes them as less human. In one of his chapter he brightly says “ Orientalism was finally a political vision of world whose construction promoted the difference between the familiar ( Europe, West, “ us ” ) and the strange ( the Orient, the East, “ them ” ) . ” This is true to an extent if we base it upon both novels.

When having the component of topographic point and supplanting in a colonial novel, it is ever indispensable that the values of the topographic point are considered ; what consequence do those values have on the character. In Heart of Darkness, Conrad chiefly presents the values of Africa through the character and what position does the storyteller have. In chapter one Conrad presents the storytellers ‘ position of Africa “ They were deceasing slowly-it was really clear… nil but black shadows of disease and famishment ” ( pg20 ) . The whole transition gives an feeling of African work forces as than human, as they the are mistreated and overworked slaves. Similar approachapproch is besides seen further in the novel “ He was utile… the evil spirit inside the boiler will acquire angry… So he sweated and fired up and watched the glass fearfully ” ( pg 45 ) . In this transition Conrad ‘s storyteller, Marlow still does n’t see them every bit and compares them with animate beings “ a Canis familiaris in a lampoon ” . The ground being for this is the adult male had no knowledgeknowlege of machinerymachinary because for them its something new, therefore they are dependent on thethr white work forces to develop them. The white adult male took takes advantage of their deficiency of capacitycapcity and scares him by referringreferrring to the evil spirit.

Not merely the storyteller in The Heart of Darkness does n’t esteem the values of Africa nor the indigens populating at that place, the character of Kurtz, who is portrayed as a powerful, corrupt adult male, takes full advantage of these less capable work forces and handle them as slaves. Kurtz does n’t esteem the Africans and handle them like childrenchidren who needs rectification or aid with anything “ He began with the statement that we Whites, from the point of development we had arrived at… By simple exercising of our will we can exercise a power for good… ” ( pg 61 ) . Kurtz got the thought that before he went to Africa, the indigens were populating as barbarian people which was so corruptedcorrpted by Kurtz ‘s mission. On another surface degree Kurtz, this wrotewuote besides gives an feeling of him believes that white work forces can revolutionisedrevolutioned Africa and convey goodness to the state every bit good as doing African work forces more capable. Thus the Africans will see the white work forces as Supreme beings demoing them the way, which they will follow.

Conrad seems to dismissdimiss the values of Africa and therefore portrays the function of white work forces governing over Africans at the clip of when the novel was written. Africans were treated as slaves by the Europeans and white race at the clip of bondage and the periodperoid of bondage was started long ago, during the fifteenth century. Throughout the fresh Conrad refers to the indigens as “ Savages ” , which shows his ferociousness towards them. This approachapproch was really apparent in the novel when he refers to the Africans as “ Well if a batch of cryptic niggas armed with all sorts of fearful arms ” ( pg 23 ) , another illustration “ unless the organic structure of a middle-aged Black, with a bullet-hole. ” ( pg 24 ) Both these quotation marks are really rough and suggest that Conrad is being really racist towards the Africans. At the clip, native Africansafricans were used to hearing such contemptuous names and because they were n’t treated every bit as white work forces, this made them more weaker and less capable to stand for their ego. Furthermorethemselves. Furtehrmore, the audience would n’t happen this racialist besides England would anticipate something far more racism than this, as they ruled over them for hundredshunderds of old ages.

This issue was consideredcondidered by many African Professors and one of the most effectual approachesapproch to Conrad ‘s racism was seen by Chinua Achebe, Nigerian novelist and professor of African Literature. Achebe called Joseph Conrad a “ bloody racialist ” ( Knowles & A ; Moore 299 ) , which he moderated in subsequently printed versions to a “ exhaustive racialist ” ( “ Image ” 257 ) . His position is contradictory, as some would hold with him. Simply because Conrad was really direct when he was mentioning to the Africans with the racialist word, from the point of position of Africans he would definitelydefinately be classed as a racialist. Achebe besides said in his talk that “ Marlow represents Africans as a portion of the wilder- cape. He reduces them to break up organic structure parts, “ limbs or rolled eyes ” ( 254 ) . On the other manus, Marlow finds that an African who does something more than materializematerialise out of the ‘evil jungle ‘ to frighten him resembles “ a Canis familiaris in a lampoon of knee pantss ” ( “ Heart ” 38 ; “ Image ” 254 ) . To an extent his argumentsarugemts are clearly valid 1s, the image of Africans portrayedportaryed by Conrad is really barbarous and showssowss the storyteller ‘s hostilityhostality towards Africans. On the other manus, from the point of position of Europeans Conrad would bebeen seen as racialist. They would reason argure that Conrad merely portrayed the events that occurredoccured during the clip and at that clip people would n’t see this as racism. However, from a point of position of twenty-first century coevals, this would be considered as racism, such respect is more serious and sensitive ; , people would be more careful and see the affect of the word before stating it.

In Salih ‘s novel, Season of Migration to the North trades withiwth the values and civilization of Sudan and how the narratornarrotor and other characterschracters develop their connexion with the state they were born in. In the novel, Salih presents the NorthernNothern and Southern Sudan as really different to each other. The Northern Sudan is modernizedmordernised, in that theretheere are many installations such afacelities sucha s infirmaries, schools and other modern substructures. Thismordern indrsstructures. Which is contrasted with the storyteller ‘s small town in SouthernSouthewrn Sudan, where there ‘s barely a school for kids. This struggle of Sudan is reflectedrefelcted in the novel by TayebTayed Salih and the novel givens an feeling of traditional tradional Sudanese values being replaced by mercenary things and engineering.

Furthermore, in 1956 Sudan gained its independency and tenseness was on its extremum between the North and the south due to differencesdiffernces in faith and ethnicity. In 1983, the war brakes out againagin between the Muslim North and Christian South. Now the Southern SudaneseSudanease have gained their independency and are allowed to take between integrity and sezession. The 2nd storyteller, Mustafa Sa’eed like the first storyteller feels alienatedaliented when he ‘s in Europe to finish his survey “ and I, over and above everything else, am a coloniser, I am the interloper whose destiny must be decided ” ( pg 94 ) like the storyteller, Mustafa Sa’eed ‘s remark evokes a feeling of supplanting. This raises an statement that is Europe a hostile topographic point for anyone like the storyteller and Mustafa Sa’eed or whether it ‘s merely your personal experience.

ReferringReferrring to the values Sudan, Salih clearly reflectsreflets these values and tradition through the characters. Mustafa Sa’eed’sSaee’d ‘s married woman Hosna portraysportays the character of typical loyal married woman, who keeps the tradition of a Muslimmuslim married woman “ ‘After Mustafa Sa’eed ‘ , she answered with a decision that astonished me, ‘I shall travel to no adult male ‘ “ . Her character is completelycompletly opposite to Jean Morris, to whom Mustafa Sa’eed married and so killed her. Her character reflectsreflecst the values and civilization of England or what he sees in her “ I was pleased she laughed so freely. Such a woman- there are many of her types in Europe- knows no fright ; they accept life with merriment and wonder. And I am a thirsty desert, a wilderness of southernsourthern desires. ” This statement stereotypes the adult females and the manner they approach work forces and Mustafa Sa’eed gives an feeling of adult females being objectsojects in his eyes. Therefore he compares himself to a quarry, on a expression out for any adult females. Furthermore, he ‘s proposing that he comes from a topographic point which natural state and full of desires and in this instance his desires are sexual 1s. These two adult females are complete reversal to each other, one is loyal portraysportays the value of Sudan and other portrays the careless European adult female. The values of Europe are really differentdiffernt to Sudan, nevertheless it does n’t look to be impacting Mustafa Sa’eed and yet he goes farther with his desires.

Frantz Fanon ‘s ‘Black skin White masks ‘ is about the hunt of true individuality, race and clamber color.colour. “ There is a fact: White work forces see themselves superior to black work forces. There is another fact: Black work forces want to turn out to white work forces, at all costs, the profusion of their idea, the equal value of their mind ” . In his book he presents his personal experience and remarks on other theories of psychologists.psychiologists. Fanon presented the thought that a individual is criticizedcritised because of their native civilization, they so become victims of lower status composite, when they are put in the center of a superior civilization. Therefore he believesbelievs that black work forces have to follow white masks in order to go portion of the superior civilization. Harmonizing to him, the best manner to accomplish this is to talk the linguistic communication of that civilization and by talking the linguistic communication, you need to understand the values and follow the culture.cultre. So did Mustafa Sa’eed put on a white mask? To an extent, it ‘s its clearly apparent from his desires which are non the values of Sudan. It seems that Mustafa Sa’eed valued the white civilization so much above his original civilization. However, this is arguable, as he might be seeking to go portion of what he believesbeleives a superior civilization ; therefore he adopts its it ‘s linguistic communication every bit good as civilization.

Following point:

Marlow likewise adopts the civilization of Africa or Kurtz ‘s. Like Kurtz at the terminal he becomes corrupted and lies.

Structure, linguistic communication, signifier used in HOD and SOM to make consequence

Critical decision on both novels/or any parallelsparalells

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